Wednesday, June 6, 1849


     Between Free Trade and the Poor Rates, the agricultural industry of Ireland is doomed. The Insolvent list of the Gazette is now almost exclusively made up of "Farmers." The following is taken from Tuesday's number.
     Petitions of Insolvent Debtors to be heard at the Court-house of Tullamore, on the 12th day of June, 1849.-
     Patrick Rabbit, late of Kilfilan, King's County, farmer.
     Michael Guinan, late of Lemanaghan, said county, do.
     Theophilus Wallace, alte of Castletown, said county, do.
     Daniel Horan, late of Ballyglass Mill, said country, do and miller.
     Keeran Guinan, late of Lemonaghan, said county, do.
    Wm. Bulfin, late of Derrinlough, said county, do.

     At the Court-house at Waterford, on the 23d day of June, 1849.
     Patrick Kelly, late of Knockalara, county of Waterford, farmer.

     At the Court-house at Kilkenny, on the 25th day of June, 1849.
    Andrew Doyle, late of Upper Grange, county of Kilkenny, farmer.
     John Dalton, late of Brownstown, said county, do.

     At the Court-house at Cork, on the 21st day of July, 1849.
 Daniel Toohill, late of Boherbee, county of Cork, farmer.
  At the Court-house at Tralee, on the 26th day of July, 1849.
     Francis Quilter, late of Gohard, county of Kerry, farmer.
     John Quilter, late of Kiltain, said county.


     Each day that passes over us presents new pictures of the dire distress which the poor of this ill-fated country are enduring. We learn that in the Nenagh union a whole family-consisting of a man, his wife, and their two children-existed an entire week on the carcass of an ass! In a Christian country-a country linked to the most prosperous and the wealthiest nation in the world, how long will such a state of things be allowed to continue? But why look for instances of this description out of our own neighbourhood, which at the present moment abounds with misery and destitution of the most fearful nature? As a proof of this assertion, we cannot do better than lay before our readers the following, and which we pledge ourselves to be correct in every particular. A wretched looking boy tottered into our office a few days since, carrying on his back a basketful of turf, which, he protested, he brought three miles. Never shall we forget the pitiable expression of the poor lad's countenance when he beseeched us to give him one half-penny for his load, to buy milk for his little sister, who, to use his own simple language, "was too far gone to eat the dry stirabout." He as asked why he did not bring his ass with two baskets, for which he would receive double the amount, and his modest reply was," Ah, sir, I would be ashamed to tell you what we have done with the ass; don't ask me." Any one, having the slightest knowledge of the real state of things in this locality, may easily comprehend what was the fate of the luckless animal.
     Now, let it for a moment be imagined that this is a coloured story, or that we write for the purpose of bringing into disrepute or obloquy any one connected with the administration of poor law relief in this union. Far from it, being well aware that no men could do more-so far as their duties permit.-to alleviate the sufferings of those committed to their care than has been done, and in doing, by the gentlemen to whom the affairs of the union are entrusted. But our object in bringing forward these cases of human suffering is, in the hope that some remedial measures may be adopted to arrest the rapid march of death by starvation, and prevent a recurrence of those revolting and shocking acts to which the poor are driven.
     If the administrators of affairs in Ireland have the devastation of this unhappy country in view, they are slowly, but not the less surely, gaining their unhallowed object. The drugs of these quacks are, with deadly certainty, doing their work; and many are the victims who, in their sore distress and in their prolonged death struggles, curse the authors of so much misery. When the Almighty in his infinite wisdom, smote the staple food of the country, the chastisement has been religiously submitted to; but when affliction is added to affliction, how can patience endure? If charity will have us believe that all has been done with a benevolent object, experience has proved the utter inefficiency of the remedies applied.
     The instance of cannibalism given by the Rev. Mr. Anderson has been no matter of great surprise to us , who daily see the skeletons prowling about and picking up what, in other times, dogs alone would not eat. We have seen, with sickening feelings, the other day, a young woman stoop down and suck up a portion of a broken egg which was mixed with the mud in the street. She evidently endeavoured to avoid observation, and blushed at what hunger had compelled her to do. Half-starved creatures  frequently may be seen groping in the river for the entrails which are thrown from the shambles, and scraping up the filthiest offal. But this is too distressing a subject on which to enlarge. Privation has corrupted the morals of the people, and property of any description is not safe from the hands of robbers. The parents steal and teach their children to do likewise. When relief is asked the applicant is desired, very unnaturally, to go to the Workhouse or to the Relieving Officer, as the only resource, theft or deception is resorted to. Habits of indolence are fast gaining upon the people, arising from insufficiency of employment and the injurious working of the Poor Law. Such is the degrading state into which the people are sinking and such the fatal consequences of mal-administration.
     While all this is going on in Mayo-while human beings are dropping dead on the road-side from exhaustion-while "death by famine," in the words of the Morning Chronicle, "is doing more execution in Ireland than all the wars which are now desolating Europe"- thirty-six thousand two hundred and eighty-eight pounds are voted for the new building of the British Museum! A few years since one million sterling was expended in the excavation of a basin in Devonport dockyard, which is now, to save the cost of finishing it, about being re-filled; and, though last not least, the town council of Doncaster votes a thousand sovereigns to the next race fund!
     We wind up with an extract from the evidence of Mr. O'Shaughnessy, Assistant Barrister for this county, given before the Commons Poor Law Committee:-
     "The peasantry of the county with which he stands judicially connected had really no alternative but the commission of crime. In passing, along the roads; in going from one town to another, it was quite afflicting to see the state of the children-they were nearly naked, with a few rags upon them; their hair standing on an end from poverty; their eyes sunken; their lips pallid, and nothing but the protruding bones of their little joints visible. I could not help exclaiming as I passed them, 'AM I LIVING IN A CIVILIZED COUNTRY AND PART OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE?'"


     Magistrates present on Friday-John Perkins, Esq., chairman, Robert Kirkwood, Esq., John Faussett, Esq. and Major Gardiner. John Kirkwood, Esq. was on the bench during a portion of the day. Mr. Cruise, R.M., was expected abut did not attend.
     A desultory conversation took place between Robert Bourke, attorney to the complainant (Doctor Wiley) and the bench, as to whether Dr. Wiley and his party should give bail to appear at the Quarter Sessions of Ballina to abide their trial inasmuch as the warrant sent to the police did not state where they were to be bound for, and Mr. Faussett, the magistrate before whom the prisoners were brought, using his discretion, bound them to appear at the Killal petty sessions, the prosecutors (Goodwins) being bound-not to the petty sessions-but to the quarter sessions. Eventually, however, Mr. Robert Bourke and Dr. Neilson bailed the parties to the next quarter sessions. The case of the Goodwins against Dr. Wiley being thus disposed of the case on the book, Dr. Wiley against five of the Goodwins and four other persons for robbery of nine head of cattle, on the 25th of May, from the lands of Court Hill, was called on.
     Dominick, Matilda, and Anne Goodwin, and John M'Guigan, appeared. Thomas Goodwin was ill at Crossmolina; Judy Goodwin, Bartly Mahon, John Barrett and Michael Gillespie did not appear.
     The defendants stated that the required an attorney, and requested and adjournment of the case, which was not granted, as there had been sufficient time to procure one since the summons were served on Tuesday and Wednesday last.
     Dr. Robert Wiley-sworn-Lives at Courthill, and recollects the 25th of May, has cattle on the lands of Courthill; a party took away nine head.
     The chairman here directed the witnesses on each side to leave the court.
     Dominick Goodwin, one of the defendants, said he had no witnesses except those charged.
     Mr. Bourke, on the part of Dr. Wiley assented.
     Examination resumed-The cattle were his own property, and were value for 45; saw 10 or 12 men beating the cattle with sticks and driving them furiously; the cattle were his property, having bought and paid for them; was not close enough to the parties to swear to their identity.
     Dr. Wiley was not cross-examined, the Goodwins saying they would ask no questions until they had the witness in another place.
     Mr. Robert Wiley, jun., sworn-Recollects the 25th of May; four cows, four bullocks, and a heifer, the property of his father, were taken away; Thomas Dominick, Matilda, and Anne Goodwin, and John M'Guigan were there; won't swear to any more; saw them come on the lands of Courthill and drive away the cattle; they rushed out of John Goodwin's house (it is this man who holds the decree against Mr. John Gardinier, and his family and assistants are the defendants) and drove them off as fast as they could; was in the bottom of a field, and met a little girl who told him of the men coming; the girl collected the cattle and they drove them off; followed the cattle; the people took up stones and used violence; could not get before the cattle they were driven so quick; they were his father's property; the drivers never told him what they were taken for.
     Cross-examined-Told the party when they came on the lands to take care of what they were doing, that he would shoot any man who would tke the cattle; fired at Dominick Goodwin going down the hill, and as the stones were coming quick, he fired again; there were about from 15 to 20 men; when he was going down the hill he saw Dominick Goodwin; the strange men were between him and the cattle; fired the pistol at this time and ran; can't say at which of the two sisters he fired.
     To Mr. Robert Bourke-The stones were throwing as quick as they could come before he fired; saw his father out before they followed the cattle.
     John Gildea, sworn- Knows, as every man in the neighbourhood does, that the cattle belongs to Dr. Wiley; of his own knowledge Mr. Gardiner had not a four-footed beast.
     Cross-examined- Does not know where the white heifer was bought or who bought it; positively swears the cattle are Dr. Wiley's property.
     Mr. Robert Gardnier, having been referred to by the defendants, was sworn, and proved that the nine head of cattle were all Dr. Wiley's; lives on the mearing; seized the white heifer on a decree he had against his brother (Mr. John Gardiner), but gave her up on an affidavit.
     Thomas Nary, sworn-Was at Courthill the day the cattle were taken away; all the Goodwins were there, but cannot identify any other person; a man named Kelly, whom he knew, was there also, but is not summoned; is living with Dr. Wiley, since he came to this country; swears that the cattle belonged to Dr. Wiley; saw the party throw stones at Mr. Robert Wiley; is not sure whether the shot was fired first or not.
     Cross-examined- The cattle were driven at such a pace that they had to run a mile to come up with them; did not see Dr. Wiley's people throwing stones; the stones were thrown on the road near Smithstown; did not  see Dominick nor Anne Goodwin there.
     Biddy M'Kenna, examined-Is in the service of Dr Wiley; recollects the 25th of May; knows the Goodwins, but none of the other party; saw them take the cows off the hill; saw Mr. Robert Wiley struck with sticks and stones on the head; is not sure whether he fired at that time or not.
     Cross-examined-Did not see Mrs. Gardiner there.
     Mr. John Kirkwood left the bench.
     Mr. Robert Bourke said that the complainant's case closed.
     The chairman asked the defendants if they had any defence to offer.
     Major Gardiner having asked what authority they had for going on the lands, they produced a decree for 10 obtained against Mr. John Gardiner at the last quarter sessions.
     Thomas Mackey, pound-keeper of Crossmolina, deposed that Thomas Goodwin, the man lying sick at Crossmolina, gave him nine head of cattle; a number of person were with him, amongst them were Bartley Mahon and M'Guigan; is not sure of Michl. Gillespie; there were none of the Goodwins there except Thomas; does not think that any of the cattle were injured, they were worth 32, double the amount of the decree; they told him they seized under a decree.
     Cross-examined-M'Guigan never told him he was a bailiff or anything else; doesn't know who put the ????? or whether M'Guigan was one of the party or ???? was in the crowd.
     The Chairman, after a consultation with his brother magistrates, announced the informations would be received, but that bail would be taken of the Goodwins, themselves in 10 each, and two sureties in 5 each.
     The cattle were ordered to be given up to Dr. Wiley, Mr. Bourke becoming responsible for their safe keeping until after the quarter sessions.
     Major Gardiner remarked that it was the most monstrous case he ever heard of.
     Chairman- There is no evidence against John Barrett or Michael Gillespie.
     Mr. Kirkwood strongly commented on the illegality of parties removing cattle from the most convenient legal pounds to those at a great distance, and read the law on the subject, which exposes the party so acting to a penalty of 5 on summary conviction before two magistrates. He expressed his determination to put a stop to such a practice, in which he was joined by other magistrates.
     Dr. Wiley then swore an information, stating that from the threats used against him and his property by the Goodwins; the was afraid of them, and requested they should be bound to keep the peace, which the magistrates grossly granted. The Goodwins having declined giving bail were committed to gaol.
     The following cases, arising out of those above, were called on before it and disposed of:-

Mary Nary a. Anne Goodwin.

     Mary Nary charged the defendant in this case with having torn her cap and beaten her, on the 25th May, while in Dr. Wiley's field; gave her no provocation; took no part in the driving or rescue, but was convenient to them.
     Cross-examined by Anne Goodwin-Never struck the cows; nor had she anything to strike them with.
     Anne M'Kenna-Saw Anne Goodwin beating the last witness, and tearing the cap off her head; complainant never interfered with the cattle in any way.
     John M'Guigan, who was produced for the defence, swore that he saw a woman forcing out the cattle, but couldn't say that complainant was the person.
     Chairman-Anne Goodwin is fined 10s. and costs, or a fortnight's imprisonment.

Margaret M'Kenna a. Honor Goodwin.

     Complainant was going with a message to Sergeant Allen, on the 25th May; when she was beaten severely by Anne Goodwin; she gave her no provocation, nor knew nothing of the cattle-driving before she was assaulted.
     Dominick Goodwin, brother of the accused, swore that his sister and the complainant were but 15 perches from him, and that he saw nothing of what the girl stated occur, and knew nothing of it until he met her.
     Chairman-Anne Goodwin is fined 10s. and costs, or a fortnight's imprisonment to commence after the former punishment has expired.
     The court shortly after adjourned.


     It is stated that Mr. Gonne Bell will succeed Mr. Tracy as stipendary magistrate at Castle Connell.
     Mr. Egan, late Town Councillor of Limerick city, has arrived at California from New York.
     It was the "Neptune" convict ship that took John Mitchel from Bermuda to the Cape.
     The Sleepless left Limerick last week with 108 passengers for Quebec.
     In Limerick, Clare, Cork and Tipperary, the situations of Barony Constables are "going a begging" for want of candidates.
     The venerable "Father Clune" who died at Six-mile-bridge on Sunday last, baptised, married and buried three generations.
     Lord Compton, and two more gentlemen, were seriously hurt by the breakdown of the Cork and Tralee coach, near Mallow.
     The carcase of an ass, which perished in the parish of Ballmackey, Nenagh union, was taken into the house of a poor man who skinned it and fed himself, his wife and children on the carrion for a week!
     Besides the parent house eight auxiliary buildings are filed up with paupers in the Killarney union; still so great is the pressure that the number of persons seeking admission has not been diminished.
     Earl Ducie, the celebrated agricultural experimentalist, has entered into a coalition for the purpose of raising a Joint Stock Company to purchase the Martin estate of 200,000 acres in Connemara.
     The marriage of Lord Clanmorris with Sarah Helena, fourth daughter of Burton Persse, Esq. D.L., Moyode Castle, was solemnized last week in the parish church of Kilconkerne, by the Rev. R.P. Graham, Rector.
     Vast numbers of persons are daily arriving in Mullingar from the counties of Longford, Galway, Leitrim, and Roscommon on their way by rail, to Dublin for America.
     Sunday last the police of Kilcash arrested Mr. Patrick Hannigan, for treasonable practices in July last. Mr. Hannigan lately returned from France, where he had been since the suspension of the habeas corpus act.





     The magistrates presiding were Thomas Jones, Esq., Chairman, Edward Howley, Esq. and James Gore, Esq.
     Informations were taken against Peter Connor, jun., Anne Connor, and James Loftus, for an assault upon James Kearney, and the rescue of a piece of frize seized for rent due Mr. Curtis. There was no defence in this case.
     John Duffy, a mason, had the Guardians of this union summoned for 1l.1s., wages due him, and there being no appearance on the part of the guardians, the service of the summons on the clerk and the debt being proved, a decree for that amount was granted.
     James M'Donnell was decreed for 18s. wages due John Quigly.
     Thos. Fenighty, who stated he was from Moygowna, was brought by a constable before the bench, for offering for sale sheep in this town, on Saturday last, much under their value, which excited suspicion, especially as the lad said his mother, a widow, had no land. The bench directed that the head-constable of Moygowna should be written to on the subject, and the sheep in the mean time detained.
     Patt Devit was brought before the court as a vagrant from Erris, and was sent to Castlebar jail for a fortnight.
     John M'Gowan, a trick of the loop man from Sligo, in whose wake a band of pickpockets followed, was ordered to be belled out of the town.
     Similar orders were given towards Patt Horan, form Westport, for gambling in the streets on Monday last.
     Michael Durkan, a noted robber, was sentenced to two months imprisonment, with hard labour, for stealing grass out of Beleek Manor.
     Thomas Dempsey was ordered to be confined to 48 hours in the bridewell, for stealing coals from Mr. William Ham.
     In some other cases the parties did not appear and the court was adjourned for a fortnight.


     The heart-rending tidings of the total wreck of the Hannah, freighted with nearly two hundred emigrants bound to Quebec from Newry, was reported yesterday afternoon at Lloyd's, the particulars having been received by the American mail steamer America, at Liverpool.
     The unfortunate vessel (the Hannah) was a brig between 150 and 200 tons burden, belonging to Maryport, and manned by a crew, it is said, of twelve seamen, under the command of Mr. Shaw, the master. On the 3d of April last, she sailed from Newry, with the above number of emigrants on board, having previously been examined by her Majesty's emigration agent at that port. The emigrants chiefly consisted of agricultural labourers and their wives and children. The passage up to the 27th, considering the season of the year, was as favourable as could be expected. The vessel then encountered heavy winds and a quantity of floating ice. The master, as well as possible, bore off in order to clear it, but it floated round in large masses, and on the morning of the 29th the unfortunate ship struck on a reef of ice of such magnitude as to carry part of her bottom. It was about four o'clock when she took the ice. The sounding of the pumps at once convinced the crew that the vessel was foundering, as there were several feet of water in her hold, and it was rapidly increasing. As the only chance of keeping the ship afloat, a cry was raised to keep to the pumps, until assistance could be obtained from some passing vessel, as also, it is presumed, to allow the boats being prepared for the rescue of emigrants. What steps were taken to secure their preservation, no mention is made in the report received; a charge, however, is laid against the master, and the first and second officers, of their having been guilty of one of the most revolting acts of inhumanity that can be conceived. They had got the life boat out, and the moment they found the vessel would inevitably go down, they jumped into it, abandoned the wreck with the living mass on board. Screams for help now rent the air, and it was with difficulty that the remainder of the crew could induce the frantic creatures to comprehend the only chance left of saving their lives. Fortunately the ice was firm under the ship's bows and the seamen, convincing them as to its security, many got on it. Its solidity being then apparent, a desperate struggle took place among the emigrants to leave the wreck. Men, women, and children, with nothing on but their night attire, were to be seen scrambling over the mass of ice. Many of the poor creatures slipped between the huge masses, and were either crushed to death or met with a watery grave. The last to leave the wreck were some of the crew, who contrived to save a small portion of spirits and a few blankets. Soon after they had got clear, the ship's stern rose as it were above water, and went down head foremost, just forty minutes after the collision with the ice. The sufferings of the wretched creatures, exposed as they were amid towering masses of ice, with a raging freezing gale of wind from the S.S.E., were most harrowing. The seamen who were among them humanely gave up what covering they had to the females, who had been shockingly wounded and bruised in their course over the ice. Thus were they exposed the whole of that day, till five o'clock in the afternoon when a vessel hove in sight, and bore down to the edge of the field of ice. It proved to be the barque Nicarque, (also bound for Quebec), Captain Marshal.
     The statement made by that gentleman relative to the steps taken by him and his crew for the recovery of the survivors, is to the following effect:- On the 29th, about half past six, the wind blowing a strong gale from the S.S.E. and a thick fall of sleet, the ship laying to the windward to a large field of ice, Cape Ray being S.E. by E. about twenty-seven miles distant, discovered something on the ice which subsequently turned out to be a flag of [cannot read, blotted]. Made all sail, and gaining the edge of the ice, found to his astonishment a mass of living people upon it. He got the ship's ice fenders down, and prepared to take the ice. By seven o'clock got clear in that in the course of two hours he and his crew succeeded in getting hold of about fifty of the poor creatures, and placing them on board his vessel. The remainder stood crouched together in another part of the ice, some distance off, inaccessible from the position of the ship. Captain Marshal had all sails cleared up, and got a rope fastened to a piece of ice, and with the long boat pushed off with his men to the spot.. After considerable difficulty he succeeded in getting to the edge, where they remained huddled together. The whole of them were saved. No pen, Captain Marshal observes, can describe the pitiable situation of the poor creatures. They were all but naked, cut and bruised, and frostbitten. There were parents who had lost their children, children who had lost their parents; many perfectly insensible. The number that got on board the Nicarque was 120, passengers and seamen. The greater part of these were frostbitten. As far as Captain Marshal could ascertain from the survivors, those who perished by being crushed between the ice, and frozen to death were from 50 to 60. As soon has he had succeeded in getting all on board, the ship was got under weigh, and proceeded in the direction of Cape Ray.- Every comfort that his means and the shop's capacity afforded were placed at the sufferers' disposal. Next day, meeting with the barque Broom of Glasgow, 27 of the poor creatures were transferred on board of that vessel; and in the course of the following day, forty-nine of the survivors, for the sake of comfort, were place on board three other vessels. The Nicarque reached Quebec on the 10th of last month, where the remainder of the sufferers were landed. Their names were Alexander Thompson, his wife and four children; William Tadford, wife and one child; William Anderson, wife and four children; John Murphy, wife and four children; David Gurwin and wife; Patrick M'Gill, James Murphy and wife; Dr. William Graham, Peter M'Fearling (his father, mother and rest of family drowned;) and also the following seamen of the Hannah-John Offin, John Smith, John Parker, Richard Harwin, Alexander Harris, and David Jordan. The names of the emigrants shipped on board the vessel from the Nicarque are not mentioned.
     The fate of the matter of the others who took to the life-boat, and abandoned the emigrants, is not known.


     May 29, at Newport-Pratt, Mrs. Richard Landers, of a daughter.
     At Westport, on Monday, 28th May, the lady of John Milling, Esq. of a daughter.
     At Salt-hill, Galway, the lady of Mr. James Martin, of a daughter.


     In this town, on Monday last, Mrs. Emily Hillman, at the advance age of 87.
     At Belclare, Westport, on Sunday morning, 3d June, at an early age, Mrs. Pinkerton, wife of James Pinkerton, Esq.
     On Tuesday last, at the family residence, Newtown, county Galway, James Kelly, Esq., D.L., J.P.
     In Tuam, on the evening of the 20th ult. of fever, consequent upon an attack of Cholera, James Blake, Esq.
     At Great Mount-Street, Dublin, on Wednesday last, of Gout in the head, John Finn, Esq., J.P. of Ballymagibbon.
     In Castlebar, on Sunday last, Mrs. Cannon, wife of Mr. James Cannon, much regretted.
     In Castlebar, on Sunday evening, George, third son of Henry Brett, Esq., County Surveyor.

Week Ended 2d June 1849

     Remaining on last Saturday night...3,597
     Admitted during the week.............  302
     Born............................................      3
     Died..................................   9         197
           Remaining on the above date.. 3,685


      Remaining on previous Saturday.......   147
     Admitted during the week.................      49
       Discharged, cured..........................      22
       Died..............................................        1
     Remaining Saturday 2d June 1849         172
                           W. KEARNEY, Steward.


     Return of the number of destitute poor persons relieved out of the Workhouse, together with the expenditure of same in each electoral division, and for the Union at large, for the week ended Saturday, the 26th May, 1849, and the cost of such relief.

Electoral Divisons No. Cost.
  s  d
Ballina (Town) 1698 32 9 6 1/2
Ballina (Country) 730 16 9 1
Ardnaree 858 19 12 9
Backs 805 16 15 8
Attymass 466 10 9 4
Kilgarvin 632 13 10 5
Dromore West 340 17 13 4 1/2
Easky 519 14 17 6
Kilglass 554 12 5 9
Castleconnor 408 9 0 11
Ballysokerry 924 19 15 10
Killala 1401 32 7 7 1/2
Lacken 1315 29 16 7
Ballycastle 814 18 19 6
Kilfan 1471 34 9 6
Crossmolina (North) 1730 42 3 11 1/2
Crossmolina (South) 1247 51 4 11
Belmullet 4449 119 2 5
Binghamstown 2584 73 2 4
Union 419 11 11 82
Total 23,364 562 18 7

           P. M'NULTY, Clerk of the Union

     Galway was illuminated and the church bells rung for the joyous news of a Railway to that town. Mr. Hemens, C.E., will be in Galway in a few days to direct the preparations. The works will be commenced at five miles apart along the entire line, so as to create the most extended employment.
     Cholera is making fearful ravages in Dingle. Already have the Parish Priest, the Rev. Mr. Deviney and Messrs. Simon and John M'Kenna (brothers) fallen victims to it.
     Mr. C. Tucker, a young gentleman who travelled for the first time in Ireland as representative of the firm of Caslon, the eminent Letter founders of London, died of cholera, after his arrival at Ennis, on Tuesday.
     A respectable and once opulent family of O'Hallorans, who for may years possessed hundreds of acres of land in the neighbourhood of Tralee, have proceeded for North America, as settlers.
     In the county of Clare, 10,000 acres of land, arable and pasture, may be had for only the payment of poor-rates, from one to five years.
     Margaret Fitzgerald, dressmaker of lisson-grove, was thrown out of a cab, and killed at Maida-hill on Friday evening.
     Mr. Walker, Secretary of the Board of Works, is removed, and Mr. Hornsby, nephew of Colonel Jones, succeeds him.
     Michael White, fisherman of Corbally, caught last evening, with a rod and line, upon a midge fly bait, a trout weighing seven and a half pounds!

COURT OF CHANCERY- Tuesday, May 22

     The Lord Chancellor admitted the following gentlemen to the bar:-
     Andrew Wiliam Hartnett, Esq., only son of Maurice Hatnett, late of Milltown, county of Dublin, merchant.
     Joseph Henry Dunne, Esq., only son of Joseph Henry Dunne, of Williamstown, county of Dublin, Esq.
     *William Despard, Esq., third son of Joseph Wright of Beech-hill, county of Dublin, Esq.
     John Dunbar, Esq., A.B., T.C.D., third son of Joseph Dunbar, of the city of Cork, merchant.
     Michael Morris, Esq., A.B., T.C.D., eldest son of Martin Morris, of Laneboy, in the county of the town of Galway, Esq.
     *James Murphy, Esq., A.B., T.C.D., fifth son of Jeremiah Murphy, late of Kilfinane, county of Limerick, Esq., deceased.
     Daniel O'Connell Riordan, Esq., eldest son of Timothy Jeremiah Riordan, of Macroom, county of Cork, Esq.
     * Michael Harrison, Esq., A.B., T.C.D., second son of Robert Harrison, of Ballymena, county of Antrim, Esq.
     Arthur Close, Esq., A.B., T.C.D., third son of James Close, late of Glenview, Belfast, county of Antrim, Esq., deceased.
     *Lesley Sidney Montgomery, Esq., A.B., T.C.D., eldest son of William F.H. Montgomery, of Molesworth-street, in the city of Dublin, Esq., M.D.
     John Churte Nelligan, Esq., A.B., T.C.D., eldest son of William John Nelligan, Tralee, county of Kerry, solicitor.
     *John Alexander Bryne, Esq., A.B., T.C.D., third son of James Byrne, of Carlow, merchant.
     George Waters, jun., Esq., A.B., T.C.D., eldest son of John Drew Atkin, of Merrion-square, in the city of Dublin, Esq.
     *Joshua Pim, Esq., A.B., T.C.D., second son of John Pim, of Newpark, in the county of Kildare, Esq.
     *James Acheson Lyle, Esq., only son of Acheson Lyle of Gardiner's-place in the city of Dublin, Chief Remembrancer of the Court of Exchequer, Ireland.
    * The eight gentlemen whose names are thus marked are Protestants. The other ten are Roman Catholics. [Note: numbers are off in this statement]


     Saturday afternoon last, B. Toy Midgeley, Esq., coroner, in the absence of James Dillon, Esq., coroner of the division (who was, we regret to say, prevented by indisposition from attending,) held an inquest in Tullamore jail, on the body of John Scott, who died there on that morning.
     Robert Harding, Esq., governor of the jail, deposed that Scott was re-committed on the 19th of April last, by George Fitzmaurice, Esq., R.M., charged with the murder of Mr. William Lucas at Brusua, in this county. That was the second time he was committed on the same charge, but was discharged at the last assizes, there being no prosecution. On the 30th of April, Scott complained of illness; he was attended by Dr. Pierce and subsequently removed to the hospital, where he died.
     Michael Murray, turnkey, being sworn saith that he was in charge of the hospital. He knew the deceased, John Scott, who wasa patient in the hospital for the last three weeks. Scott died on the morning of the 26th instant. He retained his senses all through. On the night before his death he went to Scott's bed side to see how he was. Scott asked him, "Can I live?" He said that he thought not, and then read prayers for him, in which he joined. After that Scott said there was a weight on him, and appeared anxious to make some communication to him. He told him that anything he could do for him in reason he would-that is, that he would make anything known he wished to his friends. Scott then said," I shot Mr. Lucas;" then asked him if he wished that to be known? Scott replied," After I am dead; yes." And  added that he had nothing further to say-that he was easy. Scott died in the Roman Catholic faith. The prayers he read for him were according to the Roman Catholic religion. Witness is a member of that persuasion.
     Dr. Pierce proved that the deceased was under his care, and died of typhus fever.
     The jury returned a verdict in accordance with the medical testimony.--King's County Chronicle


Wednesday, June 13, 1849


     Mr. Macready gave 1000 dollars to the families of the killed and wounded in the opera riot at New York.
     The orchards and gardens about Limerick shew evidence of a most abundant crop of apples.
     There are 805 prisoners in the gaol of Limerick. It was built to contain 130.
     The Buckingham estate in Westmeath is again consigned to the hammer in Dublin.
     The lives of the Vice-Guardians of Irish unions are not insurable!
     The Fermoy guardians have decided for general outdoor relief in that union.
     The relief lists and workhouses in Kerry contain 30 per cent of the population of the county.
      A farmer of 6 acres of land, in the parish of Youghal, in the Nenagh union, gave up his holding to qualify himself for relief in or out of the workhouse.
     A cargo of ice has arrived in Waterford from Norway. It was imported by Mr. Crawford, fishmonger, and was cut up in blocks of 2 cwt., weight each.
     Forty persons conformed to the Protestant religion at Croagh on Sunday. The Rev. W. Archer preached on the occasion.
     John Doran, of Boheronoy, labourer, a constant "tippler," having indulged to excess in intoxicating liquors on Friday night, was found dead in his bed next morning, from suffocation.
     Rear Admiral Henry Bouchier was discharged by the Insolvent Debtors' Court, last week, upon allocating 100 annually to his creditors out of his income of 400 a year.

(From the Limerick Chronicle of Saturday)

    Captain William Maunsell Gabbatt, Bengal Artillery (son of Joseph Gabbett, Esq., Limerick) whose gallant services were frequently noticed by Lord Gough, to whom he is an aid-de-camp, is appointed major in the Indian army.
     Major-General Sir R.W. Gilbert has taken military command of the Punjab district head-quarters at Lahore. Lieut. Hodgson, 3d Light Dragoons, is appointed Brigade-Major of the Cavalry of the Punjab Army.
     Major C. O'Brien is appointed commandant of the Nusseree Battalion, and Major Tremenhere, Superintending Engineer of the Punjab circle.
     Lieut. G.T. Gough, Light Dragoons, is appointed aid-de-camp on the personal staff of his Excellency the commander-in-chief.
     Capt. Capel, 15th, has arrived at Bombay from Ceylon on Private affairs.
     Major Garatin, 2nd Madras Cavalry, has succeeded Major M'Leod as military assistant to the Commissioner of Mysore.
    Lieut. Col. Hawkes, 1st Bengal Cavalry, has left Calcutta for England.
      Capt. Hawkins of the Indian Navy, is to officiate as Master Attendant at Bombay, on the departure of Capt. H.B. Lynch for England.
     Col. Sleeman fell from his horse at Lucknow and broke his thigh bone.
     Lieut-Col. Brooke, 32d; Captain Pigott, 32d; Captain M'Pherson, 24th; Surgeons Trousdell and Macbeth, 29th; Major Smith, 22d; Captain Gall, 14th Light Dragoons; have arrived from India.
     Major Hon. T. O'Grady, 74th Highlanders, has been attending a district Court Martial at Nenagh.
     The 59th embark on Monday at Cove for Hong Kong.
     Lieut. Fetherston Haugh, Haugh, 48th, is appointed Paymaster to the 59th Regiment.
     Lord Montague, 24th Regt. has sailed to join his regiment in India.

Week Ended 9th June 1849

     Remaining on last Saturday night...3,685
     Admitted during the week.............  282
     Born............................................      3
                    Total.............................  285
     Died..................................   5         201
           Remaining on the above date.. 3,769
           P. N'NULTY, Clerk of the Union   


      Remaining on previous Saturday.......   172
     Admitted during the week.................      27
       Discharged, cured..........................      28
       Died..............................................        1
     Remaining Saturday 9th June 1849         170
                           W. KEARNEY, Steward.


     Return of the number of destitute poor persons relieved out of the Workhouse, together with the expenditure of same in each electoral division, and for the Union at large, for the week ended 2d June, 1849, and the cost of such relief.

Electoral Divisons No. Cost.
  s  d
Ballina (Town) 1737 39 10 4-1/2
Ballina (Country) 764 19 4 1/2
Ardnaree 888 23 11 11
Backs 817 17 0 8-3/4
Attymass 471 12 5 4-3/4
Kilgarvin 662 16 6 5
Dromore West 343 8 19 8-1/4
Easky 559 14 19 10
Kilglass 573 13 18 10-1/2
Castleconnor 428 11 0 3
Ballysokerry 865 23 4 0-1/2
Killala 1400 38 12 9-1/2
Lacken 1379 37 9 7-1/4
Ballycastle 820 20 12 7
Kilfan 1483 40 14 7-3/4
Crossmolina (North) 1766 50 8 5
Crossmolina (South) 1278 33 15 6
Belmullet 4549 118 3 9
Binghamstown 2578 63 3 8
Union 468 14 7 6-1/2
Total 23,826 617 10 1-3/4

           P. M'NULTY, Clerk of the Union


     We take the following from a new work, by Sir A. Clarke, entitled, " A Code of Instructions until Medical Aid can be procured":-
     At the first attack of cholera no time is to be lost in obtaining medical assistance, but as it may not be possible to have it without some delay, give an adult person twenty drops of laudanum, with three of essence of peppermint in a little brandy and water every hour or half hour, until a physician arrives, or until relief is obtained. Lt the patient be removed into a well ventilated apartment, and be warmly covered, let the whole body be rubbed with spirits of turpentine, and a mustard plaster applied to the pit of the stomach; two or three drops of camphorated spirits of wine may be added to the above mentioned draught.
     It has been remarked that just before the appearance of the cholera in a district, the inhabitants are troubled more than usually with diarrhoea and other complaints trifling under ordinary circumstances, but which, in the presence of an epidemic, are apt, if neglected, to degenerate into real cholera cases.
     It is well known from the experience obtained in 1830 and 1832, that the cholera is in itself generally not contagious, but that it may become so, like some other diseases, if many sick are kept crowded together.
     The cholera has been found to be most destructive in villages situated on low and marshy grounds, or near bogs and stagnant pools; and particularly, where the inhabitants are confined within narrow space, and live unmindful of cleanliness. It has been further observed, that those dejected in spirits and easily alarmed are more subject to cholera than those who live in confidence and are of good courage.
     The following are the precautions recommended for observance against the disease:-
     To beware of catching cold, and particularly to protect the stomach from cold, for which purpose to wear a broad belt of cloth or stout flannel upon the skin around the waist; after sleep or hard labour, when in perspiration to drink no water or other beverage cold; to drink no acid beverage, and never much at a draught; to beware of all things, of intoxication; to use light food moderately; to eat no bread insufficiently baked; no crude vegetation; no unripe fruits, nor meat nor fish not perfectly fresh; and to abstain from salted meats and pickled fish that provoke the thirst; to keep the person and the dwelling clean and to allow of no sinks close to the house; to admit no poultry or animals within the house, and to keep it airy by ventilation.
     A person in good health may be suddenly attacked; at first sickness of the eye-sight dimmed; then, after, a shivering and rumbling in the bowels, vomiting and purging, with acute pains below the breast, under the ribs, and on the left side, attended by quenchless thirst. If the patient be not quickly succoured, cramps come in the legs and arms, which become of icy coldness; extreme weakness comes on, and a deadly paleness; the whole body becomes cold, then a hiccup, and other signs of approaching death.
     The following remedies, which will cost but a few pence, I would recommend every family to possess when the cholera prevails, viz:
     No. 1-A dram of camphor, with twenty drops of spirits of wine or brandy, powdered and rubbed up with an ounce of lump sugar-to be kept in a bottle, and marked "Camphor powder."
     No. 2- A grain of the murist of morphia, rubbed with a quarter of an ounce of lump sugar-to be kept in a bottle and marked, "Morphia Powder."
     No. 3-Twenty grains of Dover's Powder, rubbed with half an ounce of lump sugar-to be kept in a bottle and marked, "Dover's Powder."
     No. 4-A bottle of the essence of peppermint.
     No. 5-A dozen of Calomil pills, one grain in each. As much of the camphor powder as can be taken upon a sixpence, with the same quantity of Morphia and Dover's powder, and three drops of the essence of peppermint, may be given in a wine-glass of water every quarter of an hour until a physician arrives, giving with the first draught one or two of the calomil pills. Should the vomiting be the most distressing symptom, omit the Dover's powder, and give double the quantity of the Morphia.
     In a multitude of cases I have given the above-mentioned powders in the first stage or as the premonitory symptoms appeared, and had seldom occasion to repeat the medicine after the second dose; by putting the patients in a bed at once, and covering them warmly with bed clothes, a free perspiration is produced; and by giving them plenty of cold water to drink (no brandy or whiskey), all the other secretions are promoted, and in nineteen cases out of twenty the collapsed stage may be prevented before medical aid can be procured.

     FORESTALLING- This nefarious practice has arrived at a pitch which calls for immediate interferences of the local authorities; and which, if not put a stop to, will place beyond the reach of all, except the wealthy, the articles of consumption with which our markets are generally supplied. These "huxters," or forestallers, make a practice of meeting, at the outlets of the town, farmers and others bringing produce to the market, and induce or compel them to dispose of the articles intended for market, at any price they may offer them. It is unnecessary to mention the evil that is inflicted on the public by such a course, any more than to remark that potatoes alone have advanced in price from 6d. to 10d. per stone! If we mistake not, there is an act of parliament in existence which empowers magistrates to punish summarily offenders of such a character.

     This week, on two properties near Borrisokane, 450 notices of ejectment have been served. From a property near Clonmel, three hundred have been left homeless, their wretched dwellings having been levelled in the neighbourhood of Burrisoleigh.
     New potatoes, full grown and perfectly sound, were raised in the garden of Clarisford House, the seat of the Lord Bishop of Killaloe, on the 1st of June, inst.; also new peas, goosberries, &c., without any artificial stimulant.
     CHOLERA IN AMERICA-Onward marches the pestilence with its destructive and fatal breath. We hear of its ravages in Louisville, New Albany, Jeffersontown, Madison, Patriot, Maysville, Yazoo, Glasgow, many towns near New Orleans, Cincinnati, St. Louis, and Pittsburg, and on board most of the steamboats on the Mississippi and western rivers. The mortality is great. At Cincinnati there were 71 deaths in six days. In Baltimore there have been a few cases only; in New York, a few cases. This scourge has been peculiarly fatal to the Irish at New Orleans, the victims from that nation forming two-fifths of the whole number of deaths for the past three weeks.
     William Kearney, Esq., Sub-sheriff of Mayo, has appointed Mr. Patrick Flinn, of Castlebar, as his deputy. Mr. Flinn has also been appointed by Anthony Ormsby, Esq., High Sheriff, Replevinger for the Castlebar district.


     With sincere regret we have to record the death of Edward Malley, Esq., of Castlebar, which melancholy event took place on Wednesday last, after a short illness. The deceased gentleman was in the 80th year of his age.

 (From our Castlebar Correspondent)

     CASTLEBAR, JUNE 12, 1849.- I am happy to be able to inform you that the poor labourers in and about this town are likely to get immediate employment, if a rumour which is current here be correct-namely, that the Board of Works have granted fifteen or sixteen thousand pounds for the deepening and widening of the river running from the beautiful Lake Lanack. If no other good be effected by this boon, it will be the means of keeping alive many of our poor, who are at present for want of employment, in a very wretched state.
     Certain parties are most anxious to make the public believe that cholera had broken out amongst us. What their motive may be for getting up this story, remains a secret with themselves-at all events it is not calculated to benefit our already impoverished town. As a "precautionary" step a house has been taken in the very centre of the town, in case it should be required for an hospital.

    CASTLEBAR UNION- The "goods and chattels" of the workhouse of this union are, on Wednesday next, to be offered to "public competition" for a debt due the late treasurers, the Messrs. Clendining. This is the second or third time that the hammer descended on the "fenders and fire-irons" which constitute a portion of the furniture of that house. We are satisfied the sale will be an "attractive" one, and that competition will be the order of the day.

     SLIGO MILITIA- Colonel Knox Gore, Lieutenant of Sligo, has appointed to the Majority in the Sligo Regiment of Militia, vacant by the death of Sir James Crofton, Bart., John Frederick Knox, Esq., of Mount Falcon, in this county. Whether in reference to property, position, or personal qualifications, a better selection could not have been made. Mr. Knox's father was for many years a Major in the same regiment.


     13th Light Dragoons-Cornet H. Mossman to be Lieutenant by purchase, vice Dunn Gardiner, who retires; the hon. W.H.W. Quin, to be Cornet by purchase, vice Mossman.
     15th Light Dragoons-Lieut. T.G.L.C. Gwyn, from 36th foot, to be Lieutenant, vice J.H. Carew, appointed to the 9th foot.
     19th Regt. of Foot-Lieutenant J.H. Carew, from 15th Light Dragoons, to be Lieutenant, vice Burden appointed Adjutant.
     26th Foot-Ensign W.E. Thomas to be Lieutenant by purchase, vice Elliot, who retires; F.A. Carrington, Gent. to be Ensign, vice Thomas.
     36th Foot-Lieut. F.B. Forster, from the 2d West India Regt. to be Lieutenant, vice Gwyin, appointed to the 15th Light Dragoons.
     40th Foot.- Captain J.M.B. Neill, to be Major, by purchase, vice MacDuff, promoted in the St. Helena Regt.; Lieutenant F. Huey, to be Captain by purchase, vice Neill; Ensign R.P. Hibbert, to be Lieutenant by purchase, vice Huey; F.H. Atherly, Gent. to be Ensign, by purchase, vice Hibbert.
     58th Foot-Lieutenant T.J. Grant, from the Ceylon Rifle Regt. to be Lieutenant, vice A. Smyth, whose promotion by purchase has been cancelled; Gent. Cadet F. Palmer, from the Royal Military College, to be Ensign, without purchase; vice Grant, promoted to the Ceylon Regt.
     59th Foot-Lieut. T.W.J. Lloyd to be Adjutant, Vice Peebles, who resigns the Adjutancy only; Acting Assistant Surgeon John Goringe, M.D., to be Assistant-Surgeon.
     72d Foot-Ensign A. Smyth has been permitted to retire from the service by the sale of his commission.
     69th Foot-Lieutenant R.B. Deering, to be Captain, without purchase, vice Brevet Major M'Pherson, who retires upon full pay; Ensign J. Grime, to be Lieutenant, without purchase, vice Deering; Gent. Cadet W.B. Persse, from the Royal Military College, to be Ensign, vice Grime.
     Ceylon Rifle Regt.-Ensign T.J. Grant, from 58th Foot, to be Lieutenant, without purchase, vice Meade, appointed to the 83rd Foot; Second Lieut. A.C.K. Lock, to be First Lieut. by purchase, vice Crant, 58th Foot C.E. Heyward Gent, to be Second Lieut. by purchase, vice Lock.
     Royal Canadian Rifle Regiment-Ensign R. LeMarchant Grey to be Lieutenant, by purchase, vice Stuart, who retires; J.R. Wilson, Gent. to be Ensign, by purchase, vice Grey.
     St. Helena Regiment-Major J. M'Duff, from 40th Regt. to be Lieutenant Colonel, by purchase, vice Brevet Major Piggott, who retires upon full pay; Ensign R.A. Loudon to be Lieutenant, without purchase, vice Machean; J.S. Helps, Gent. to be ensign, without purchase, vice Loudon.

     A COURAGEOUS FEMALE- In the forenoon of the 3d instant, two men, one armed with a pistol, the other having his face blackened, came to the home of Mathew Brien, of Ballymoylan. He was absent at the time.- His sister having seen them coming towards the house, and judging the fellows had some bad object in view, closed and bolted the doors and windows, and armed herself. They fiercely demanded admittance, which she boldly refused giving, whereupon they attempted to force the door, but finding they could not, they endeavoured to lift it off its hinges, which Miss Brien prevented by striking their fingers with a spake handle. They departed, threatening Brien with death should he take any more land.--Nenagh Guardian.

     LOSS OF LIFE BY THE SHIPWRECK OF THE HANNAH, OF NEWRY, EMIGRANT SHIP.- We (Ulster Gazette) learn, from perusal of a private letter received by a friend in Newry, that the captain and part of his boat's crew picked up by the Margaret Pollock, and reached Quebec two days after the unfortunate passengers.- The captain was, as is stated, arrested by the authorities there, and informations were received against him. The surgeon of the brig Hannah, who was with the passengers on the iceberg, was brother of the Rev. Mr. Graham of Newry, and we regret to state that from his own intense suffering, combined with great personal exertion, his death took place two days after his arrival at Quebec.

     Surgeon Carmichael, of Dublin, an eminent and highly respected member of the medical profession, was drowned on Friday evening, while crossing (on horseback) an inlet, leading to his residence at Sutton, near Howth.
     Mr. James Morris is appointed Manager of the National Bank, Kilkenny.
     Captain Kennedy, Poor Law Inspector of Kilrush Union, reports 16 cabins levelled, and 21 families evicted in Killard, and within a fortnight of the last month, 1,200 persons in the union have had their abodes levelled! He estimates that 15,000 were unhoused in the Kilrush union in the last year.
     A cargo of copper was shipped from Limerick for Swansea, the last week, being native produce.


     A numerous meeting of the tenant-farmers and others was held in Carlow on Thursday, for the purpose of establishing a society to organize extensive emigration from this country. The meeting, which was got up under the auspices of Father Mahon and other Roman Catholic clergymen, adopted a series of resolutions-The following brief speech, delivered by a comfortable farmer, sketched the whole case of the Carlow agriculturists:-
     "Mr. John Hanlan, of Graig, came forward to propose the third resolution. He said it was impossible for this country, with the principles of free trade in operation, to compete with the countries that had neither rent, tithes, poor rates or other taxes to pay (hear). Those other countries were as prosperous as this, yet hand none of those charges to contend with. How, then, was it possible for the farmers of Ireland to compete with those of other countries, the protective duties having been withdrawn? (hear). He thought it was quite impossible. The consequence of free trade, however, just it might be in the abstract, and he did not deny its justice, would be to bring prices here to the same level as in America and other countries, which had scarcely any rent or taxes to pay. The result must be that the money of the country will be all abstracted to America, and the people will all be reduced to even greater poverty and distress (hear, hear). And if the gentry did not come forward to assist in applying a remedy to the wretched state of things in this country, they, too shortly would be reduced to the most miserable condition. In fact, it would be only a day later with them (hear). He had received a great many communications from America, and he found that corn could be raised at a very cheap rate. Besides that, the repeal of the navigation laws would enable the produce of America to be brought to this country with greater facility and at a cheaper rate. Wheat from America could be probably sold in Ireland at 20s the barrel. How could Ireland, then, compete with that country? (hear, hear.) With present rents and taxes, how could the Irish farmer exist after the reduction that must take place in prices? Unless the landlords came forward to assist the tenants, it was impossible that they could live on the land (hear, hear). For himself he was glad to say that he had a good, considerate landlord-the Earl of Besborough-who was disposed to encourage the tenant, and not drive him from the country. He (Mr. Hanlon) would not advise his fellow-countrymen to leave Ireland, if they could remain in it; but he thought that under present circumstances it would be impossible that they could do so, unless they desired to live in the poor houses, or as the miserable serfs of men who would do anything to encourage them (hear, hear).


     It would be no endless piece of work to give a detail of all the robberies which have been committed in and about this town during the past week, fully bearing out the statements we made last week, of the awful state of demoralization into which the poorer classes are driven by privation. No description of property is safe from the hundreds of thieves in this small town who are constantly on the look out for the means and opportunities of stealing; and the utmost caution, now used, does not prevent us hourly hearing of acts of pilfering. A band of those robbers took from Killanley church, the other day, the vestments, baptismal font, and other articles of value; they then proceeded to Kilglass church, where they likewise committed some depradations, and were on their way towards Sligo with a similar intent on the churches on their line of march, when they were arrested. Instances of stealing articles of food, clothing, furniture, &c., might be brought forward to a frightful extent. Slates taken off the roofs of houses, panes of glass removed from windows, panels from doors-in fact, no precaution seems to avail against so many attempts. The dread of imprisonment is no preventative; many are glad they are let loose again upon the industrious. The gaols are full, and twenty-four hours in bridewell is the only punishment of some, while the great bulk of these pests are never detected.
     The people, under the influence of extreme destitution, and from insensibility to everything except want, are less under the restriction of religion than heretofore; hence their sinking into vice.
     Of all this what is the cause? Want of employment and want of food. The landlords, their ruin accelerated by the poor law tax, cannot give employment on their waste properties-waste, not by the desertion of pauper tenants (these still remain) but by the emigration of the wealthy yeomen who, in other times, cheerfully paid their rents, and lived comfortably before Free Trade and Poor Laws cast their baneful shade over unhappy Ireland.
     Private enterprise is checked-this is evident every where-and, thus, also, many are deprived of the means of earning a livelihood. So the people are starving - the provisions of the Poor Law not extending to all-ruining many and feeding few-and yet, like characters often met with, the promoters of injurious measures and supporters of a certain clique are doggedly resolved upon having their own way, though they know in their inmost souls that that is the wrong way. How slowly, too, are further measures for the relief of the destitute poor dragging their unwieldy lengths along? Relief, of some sort or other, is to come, but when, or how to be administered? If through an altered (not improved) Poor Law Act, and the bye laws of Poor Law Commissioners, then bad only becomes worse. The progress of starvation and iniquity should be checked by those who aided in its advance to the alarming height at which it has now reached, by the immediate employment of the labouring class in the distressed districts on useful and remunerative works; and while the present measure is thus somewhat being alleviated, measures could be adopted for the permanent improvement of the country.

     A REMEDY FOR CALIFORNIA FEVER- A friend, who had seen some service in the camp life, offers to those afflicted with the prevailing epidemic, the following prescription:- 1st: Sleep three night in your wood house with the door open and swinging in the wind, during which time let your diet be pork cooked by yourself at a smokey fire in the garden. 2d- Improve all the rainy nights in sleeping between your currant bushes and garden fence. 3d. On the fourth day of your regime let the diet be mule steak. 4th. Thereafter dispense with all kinds of food save dog meat. If this be followed resolutely, it is confidently believed a permanent cure will be affected.--New York Nation.

Wednesday, June 20, 1849


     Magistrates present-Edward Orme, John Orme, William Orme and Thomas G. Paget, Esqrs.
     Informations were received against Philip Judge, Margt. Judge, Bridget Borke, and Anthony Judge, for having, on the 4th inst., robbed and assaulted Richard Burke.
     Patrick Doherty, of Labardane, was committed to jail for having stolen two heifers, the property of Pat Gallagher of Killen.
     Hugh Conway to pay a fine of 5 or two months' imprisonment with hard labour, for milking Peter O'Hara's cows and stealing the milk.
     There were no cases of public interest.


     The Magistrates present were, Thomas Jones, Esq., Chariman, and D.J. Cross, Esq., R.M.
     Patrick Coleman was convicted in the penalty of 6 or three months' imprisonment for illicit distillation.
     James Brisbane was also fined 6 or three months' imprisonment for having illicit whiskey in his house.

Henry Wills and others v. John Igoe, Catherine Igoe, and others.

     Mr. Wills sworn, stated that on the 26th of May last, he proceeded to serve a notice of distress for rent, due Mr. Moore, of Moorehall, for whom he is acting, when he was met by a party of Krigella, who assaulted him and his assistants; witness was riding quietly along when Anthony Loftus, one of his party, was attacked by John Igoe, who struck him repeatedly and knocked him down. Thomas Loftus, another of witness's party, was knocked senseless for some time by James Igoe. John Igoe then ran to his house for a gun, which he presented at witness and swore he would shoot him.- Witness then thought it advisable to retire with his party. Witness was not going to serve a notice on defendant but was proceeding to another part of the lands. Michael Igoe and Catherine Igoe also assaulted his men.
     On the cross-examination witness swore he was on the road when attacked, and that Anthony Loftus did not seize a cow belonging to John Igoe.
     Two witnesses were examined for the defence, but the assault not being disproved, informations were ordered to be taken against the defendants.

     William O'Hara was fined 2s. and costs or fourteen days imprisonment, for stealing grass from Colonel Gore's land.
     A few other cases of no public importance were disposed of.


     We have the sad duty of announcing the calamitous and total shipwreck of the brig "Maria," of and from this port to Quebec, on the 13th of May last, with 111 emigrants, comprising small farmers, labourers and their families, which sailed from Limerick on the 2nd day of April last. The Maria was a well-found craft of 250 tons burden, and received a complete repair in this port immediately before her disastrous voyage, and such confidence had Mr. M'Donnell, the owner, in the vessel, master, and crew that he did not insure a single pound in her; but serious as is the individual loss he must of course sustain by the unfortunate catastrophe it can weigh little in his mind compared with the awful loss of human life, which no human foresight could avert. The master, Michael Hedigan, an experienced and skilful navigator, formerly sailed the Hornet schooner for some years between Limerick and London. The sudden crash of an iceberg in the St. Lawrence Gulf, no vessel afloat could possible withstand. It comes like an avalanche and the frequent prevalence of fog adds to the impending danger. Two more vessels, it will be seen, were destroyed in a similar manner, one before and the other immediately after the unfortunate Maria.
     At midnight on the 13th of May, the 'Maria', Hedigan master, from Limerick, manned by a crew of ten hands, with 111 passengers, when within fifty miles from St. Pauls, ran into an iceberg with terrific force. The whole of her bow were stove in, and the next moment the sea was rushing into the hold with the violence almost of a cataract. A piercing shriek was heard from below, but it was only a few moments' duration, as the ship went down almost immediately. It was the mate's watch, who, with one seaman and a cabin boy, succeeded in saving three lives by one of the boats which floated from the wreck as she foundered. About twenty of the passengers managed to reach the deck just before she went down, some of them jumped on to the ice, while others clung to the floating spars. Nine only, however, could be preserved, six men, two women and a boy, who had got on to the ice. Nothing was seen of the master or the rest of the crew; they all perished with the remainder of the passengers. Exposed in the boat to the most inclement weather, the helpless survivors remained the whole of the following day. Eventually a barque, named the Roslyn Castle, and the Falcon, a brig, approached, and took them on board. The poor creatures had suffered severely from cold, and their condition was the most heartrending. Their names are given as follows:- Michael Cusack, Eliza Cusack, Michael Cusack, jun., Joseph Lynch, Bridget O'Gorman, Thomas Connors, William Brew, John Hogan and Patrick M'Tigue; the survivors of the crew are- William Collins (mate), John Pickering (seaman) and Michael Tighe (cabin boy), making in all, out of the one hundred and twenty-one souls on board, only twelve saved. In consequence of the brig Falcon being short of water, those who were picked up by her were transferred on board the Roslyn Castle, which proceeded direct to Quebec, and arrived there.-- Limerick Chronicle.


     We are near crisis. A few more days will, in all human probability, tell the story of our prospects for the ensuing year. We are now in that state of suspense about the potato crop which must force upon us the anticipation of our wretched condition in case of another failure. Who can contemplate the future without deep forebodings of sorrow? The wretched landholder, clinging with desperate tenacity to the soil of his birth, indulges once more in hope. He is contented to suffer slow starvation for a few weeks longer, under the confident impression that then his sufferings will be past. But what if his hopes are blighted? He can see nothing before him but the grave. His last shift has failed. He can never quit his native land for a more hospitable country, and he sinks in sullen sadness to await his doom.
     But what is to be done with those who may survive the shock? The young who are growing up in our workhouses, collected together in large numbers, undisciplined to agricultural pursuits-trained to a spirit of dependence, they must prove comparatively useless either to themselves or the community at large. Every year will increase the difficulty, until we shall have to witness the anomaly of vast districts being totally uncultivated for want of labor, while at the same time we have resources from which to supply the labour market almost to any extent.
     We have reason to believe the subject of emigration is under the consideration of individuals in high quarters. The colonies require large numbers of persons, especially of the female sex. We would not wish to give up our small but industrious farmers. Why should they not be encouraged as much as possible to remain at home? We feel that they cannot be spared, but alas! they are the persons who are quitting our shores to add their bone and sinew to the strength of another land. We cannot wonder at it. Much should we prefer to see some gigantic scheme of emigration in connection with our unions. England could permanently benefit herself by granting us large subscriptions. We trust the English people are thinking upon the subject. Will they do anything for us? ?We shall see.

     INQUEST- An inquest was held on yesterday, in this town, before Charles Atkinson, Esq., coroner, on the body of a man named John Ryan, of Mill-street. From the evidence adduced it appeared that the deceased was returning from Crossmolina on Thursday last, and under the influence of ardent spirits, when he received a severe fall on a part of the road recently covered with newly broken stones. His nose and forehead were much lacerated, his brain being also injured, which terminated fatally on Sunday night. The jury found a verdict in accordance with the above facts.

     (From our Bangor Correspondent)

     The constabulary of Corick, during the past fortnight have been actively employed day and night in endeavouring to apprehend the persons concerned in the outrage on the meal carts belonging to the guardians of the poor of the Belmullet district. Through the exertions of Constable Browne, Sub-constables Sullivan, Maginness, and the rest of the party almost all the offenders are made amenable to justice. This has given a sudden check to the plunder of meal in this district.


     We are happy to learn that the Shipwrecked Fisherman's and Mariner's Benevolent Society has established an agency here, under the following care of our very worthy townsman, Mr. John M'Culloch.
     The objects of this society are of so praiseworthy a nature, and the benefits it confers so exceedingly important, that we rejoice to see its influence being extended in this locality.
     We are glad to be informed that, henceforth, none of those really unfortunate fellows, who have suffered from shipwreck or any other calamity incidental to a seafaring life, need any longer want food or shelter-and that none of those impostors who, in the garb of sailors, trade upon the sympathies of the charitable and humane, shall, in future, be permitted to ply their iniquitous calling.
     All the benevolent man has to do is insure relief to the deserving and detection to the worthless, is to direct all applicants of the description stated to John M'Culloch, Knox's-street, Ballina.


     At Cavan, Philip O'Donnell, Esq., of Ennis, of the Provincial Bank, to Maria, daughter of John M'Fadden, Esq., Coronet


     In Dublin, on the 16th inst., of Cholera, after a few hours illness, James Anderson, Esq. of Massbrook, in this county.


     The 15th of July is fixed for the consecration of the Lord Bishop of Limerick in Dublin by the Archbishop of Dublin, assisted by the Bishops of Meath, Down, and Cork. The Lord Bishop of Limerick, after his consecration, will hold a visitation of his clergy for this Diocese and the Diocese of Ardfort and Aghadon.
     The Bishops of Limerick and Down are to sit in Parliament the same session.
     The Rectory of Kennitty, King's County, value 200 a year, and in the gift of the Bishop of Killaloe, is vacant by the death of the Rev. H. Tyrrell.
     The Rev. George A. Frederick Patton, has been appointed to the junior curacy of Dromore cathedral.
     The Lord Bishop of Cork, Cloyne nad Ross has made the following changes consequent on the death of the Rev. William Hall:-The Rev. Mr. Swanzy, from Macroom to Kilshannig; Rev. Mr. Nash, from Monanimmy to Macroom; and Rev. Mr. Perrin to Monanimmy. The Rev. Wm. Walker, curate of Carrigaline, succeeds to the incumbency of Fermoy, vacant by the promotion of the Rev. James White to Inchigeela. The Rev. Henry Sadlier has been initiated by the Bishop to the Rectory of Charleville.


     Captain Codrington, of the Thetis, has got 20,000 with his wife.
     Butter has advanced 2s. per cwt, in the London market.
     The Colonels of Militia can appoint any person to the office of Sergeant.
     The Cushlamachree and Cremona, both full of passengers, sailed from Galway last week, for New York.
     Bianconi's car was upset in the street in Longford on Monday, owing to furious driving.
     Cholera has left Tralee and Templemore, and is abating in Athlone.
     A dog was last week seen devouring the body of a corpse left over ground in Killalee church-yard.
     The potato disease has appeared at Castlemartyr and near Mallow, in a most extensive field belonging to Mr. Franks. The plant and root are destroyed.
     There is a company of capitalists formed in London to purchase the Irish estates when offered for sale under the act now passing.
     Twenty-three shops are closed in the main-street of Clonmel, where there are three workhouses full of paupers.
     Mr. John Ball has been appointed Assistant Poor Law Commissioner, in the room of Mr. Power, who succeeded Mr. Twisleton as Commissioner in Ireland.
     Three hundred pounds have been collected in the diocese of Derry for the Curates' Fund, in the South of Ireland.
     During the past week there were 50 convicts removed from Galway gaol, for transportation, and there are 70 more under like sentence.
     Ten stacks of oats, the property of Mr. Maher, of Tullemaine Castle, were maliciously burned a few nights since.
     Archbishop McHale has announced "an indulgence of forty days" to all who attended his procession of the Host at Tuam Chapel on the Feast of Corpus Christi.
     Four hundred and fifty notices of ejectment have been served on one or two properties not many miles from Borrisokane, and 300 miserable beings were sent on the world from a property near Clonmel.
     Mr. Charles Fitzgerald Higgins, a Mayo gentleman, was, on Saturday, committed from Marylebone office for assaulting his wife, daughter of Sir F.P. Joddrell, who lives apart from the offender.
     Last week an application was made to the Queen's Bench to strike off Mr. John Murray from the roll of attornies, for misconduct arising out of transactions with Mr. Kernaghan, of Sligo, and the Provincial Bank. The court refused the application, but censured Mr. Murray and ordered him to pay the costs.
     Number of officers and men in the Constabulary force in Ireland, on the last of January, 1849, including 70 magistrates, 12,828; horses, 344. Total expenses of proportion charged on the Consolidated Fund was 562,506; of which the proportion charged on the Consolidated Fund was 525,386, and the amount borne by counties, cities and towns, 37,120.
     In the parish of Clenmore, near Doneraile, there were three years ago not more than three or four members of the Established Church, who were attendants on public worship, but in consequence of the untiring exertions, and the frequent parochial visits of that excellent clergyman the Rev. James Grant, the church, rather a large one, is now nearly quite filled every Sabbath.
     Since the 1st of January last 24 vessels sailed from Waterford with emigrants for America. Two thousand individuals, in addition, left the port for America, via Liverpool. The total number which left Waterford being 5,000.
     The guardians of the Armagh poor-law union came on Tuesday to the resolution of discontinuing out-door relief throughout the whole union, and making arrangements for the intern accommodation of all classes of paupers who may seek assistance.
     A dreadful explosion of fire damp occurred on Tuesday morning, at the Hepburn pit, the property of T. Easton and Co., on the river Tyne, near Newcastle.- All the men in the part where the explosion took place are dead. The explosion must have been terrific for all the stoppings in the district were destroyed, and the bodies of the men were blown to atoms. More mutilated corpses were perhaps, never occasioned by such a catastrophe.
     In that portion of the Newcastle union adjoining Abbeyfeale, not a single beast for miles is to be seen, at least distrainable by the poor-rate collector. A general watch is kept up, and on any approach the cattle are housed.
     The newly elected master of the Youghal workhouse having introduced a new system of discipline, the paupers rose en masse to expel him, broke open the gates and paraded the streets in a riotous manner. The police quelled the riot.

    PROGRESS OF PAUPERISM IN SLIGO- The increase of destitution in this union seems to keep a rapid pace with the increase of public provision to meet it. We have for some time past had a steady increase of applicants for relief to the average amount of about one hundred and twenty a week. It has been found necessary, in consequence of this, to take two large stores and fit them out as auxiliary workhouses, and if the tide of pauperism but continues to flow space, we shall soon have all the stores in Sligo filled with the unhappy victims of poverty-creating legislation.--Sligo Guardian.


     On Thursday the above meeting was held at the rere of the Hotel in Burrin-street, on the extensive premises the property of Mrs. Purcell, of Halverstown. We are not acquainted with one resident proprietor who has not during the last six months given the claim put forth at the meeting the utmost attention, and who are not willing, so far as reasonable means will permit, to meet the claims in a spirit of justice  and generosity- Mr. Pat Lalor of Tinnekill, prepounded the extravagant opinion, that if the "land of Ireland" were given free to the occupiers they could not sustain themselves.
     Mr. Wilson Gray, of the Freeman's Journal, who resided in America for several years, gave a more apt illustration of the consequences of the light of men, by honestly stating, from practical experience, that before the tenants or middle classes even with a fair capital could expect to realise a livelihood, they should become labourers!- in other words, to begin as Irish paupers do in America, with strong bony hands, to work out a living, which may be enjoyed by their posterity! This intelligent gentleman, who travelled through the far West, never held one single prospect for the farmer beyond that which arduous labour opens to every man, whether on the prairie, in the forest, or on his own farm in Ireland.
     The Rev. Mr. Maher-A fact which was anything but encouraging to emigrants of small capital, who may be sufficiently foolish to expect to live in America without labour!! Although an enthusiast he would not undertake the responsibility of removing a single man from the country, unless that man had made up his mind, and effected his arrangements calmly and deliberately in his family for emigration.
     America is not the best country for the farmer, unless he make up his own mind to face the perils and the hardships of a new position in the wilderness, with a surrounding population going  a head ready one day to cultivate Indian corn and the next to cut to California-a population ever restless, ambitious and possessed of the cunning and over-reaching qualities ascribed by Milton to Satan. Against such a people our quiet and unobservant farmers would be no match, for an honest man is a century behind a rogue and a cheat in America.
     We have no doubt whatever that the landed proprietary of Ireland will employ every available means to sustain the honest, improving and industrious farmer in his position. The landlord, if upon no other ground but that of self interest, will co-operate with the tenant, and thus check that mania for emigration which has unsettled the public mind. The motto of both will be "live and let live?"---Carlow Sentinel.

    Captain Hamilton acknowledges to have received 1 from the Hon. and Rev. Sidney Godolphin Osborne, to be applied towards the purchase of whatever Captain Hamilton might wish for the children of the Ballina workhouse school.

Week Ended 16th June 1849

     Remaining on last Saturday night...3,769
     Admitted during the week.............  324
     Born............................................      2
                    Total.............................  326
     Died..................................   5         290
           Remaining on the above date.. 3,805
           P. M'NULTY, Clerk of the Union   


      Remaining on previous Saturday.......   170
     Admitted during the week.................      21
       Discharged, cured..........................      37
       Died..............................................        2
     Remaining Saturday 9th June 1849         152
                           W. KEARNEY, Steward.


     On looking over the visitors book at the Union Workhouse, we were much pleased by reading the following observations of the Hon. and Rev. S.G. Osborne, the correspondent of the Times, who has been here last week. Contrasting this with other Workhouses, the remarks of this talented and human gentleman must, indeed, be very gratifying:
     "I have gone over the whole house, and am much gratified with every department. I cannot be also observe, that I have not yet seen, in any house in Ireland, greater attention to the sanatory condition of the inmates, giving itself an appearance of health generally. I have not seen equalled in any of the other houses I have visited."

     SANATORY CONDITION OF THE TOWN- On this subject it is our pleasing duty to have to state that never was our town freer from malignant disease. The cholera is still keeping at a distance from us, and we trust, that attention to the proper cleanliness of the town will not be relaxed.

     THE ARMY- It appears by the Gazette of Friday, in another column, that Walter Bourke, Esq. of Heathfield House, in this county, had been gazetted, by purchase, to an ensigncy in the 56th regiment.

War Office-June 15

     6th Dragoon Guards- Lieutenant B. Brocas, from the 71st Foot, to be Lieutenant, vice Neville, who exchanges.
     11th Foot- Lieutenant J.W. D'Oyly, to be Captain, by purchase, vice Kenny, who retires; Ensign H.J. Finch, Gent, to be Ensign, by purchase, vice Maclean.
     50th- Lieutenant W.P. Elgee to Adjutant, vice Lister, who resigns the Adjutancy only.
     56th- Ensign J.K. Humfrey, to be Lieutenant, by purchase, vice Fellows, appointed to the 96th Foot; Ensign H. Eccles to be Lieutenant by purchase, vice Thorne, appointed to the 80th Foot; Wm. C. Coghlan, Gent., to be Ensign, by purchase, vice Eccles.
     59th-Lieutenant W. Fetherstonbaugh, from the 48th Foot, to be Paymaster, vice A. Walshe, who retired upon half pay; Assistant Surgeon to the Forces G.W. Powell, M.D. to be surgeon, vice Williams, promoted on the Staff.
     62- Ensign J. O'Callaghan to be Lieutenant by purchase, vice Seale, who retires; J. Smith, Gent., to be Ensign by purchase, vice O'Callaghan.
     71st- Lieutenant B. Nevill, from the 6th Dragoon Guards, to be Lieutenant, vice Brocas, who exchanges.
     80th- Lieutenant G. Thorpe, from the 56th Foot, to be Lieutenant, vice Hardinge, promoted in the 16th Foot.
     96th- Major T.M. Wilson, to be Lieutenant-Colonel by purchase, vice Hulme, who retires; Brevet Major R. Bush, to be Major, by purchase, vice Cheape, who retires; Captain J. Snodgrass to be Major, by purchase, vice Wilson; Lieutenant R.M. Lambert to be Captain, by purchase, vice Bush; Lieut. J.V. O'Donnell to be Captain, by purchase, vice Snodgrass; Lieut. F.W. Fellows, from the 56th Foot, to be Lieutenant, vice Lambert; Ensign G. Bentinck Cumberland to be Lieutenant, by purchase, vice O'Donnell; P. Hunter, Gent. to be Ensign, by purchase, vice Cumberland.
     3d West Indian Regiment-Ensign W.J. Russwurm to be Lieutenant, by purchase, vice Dudgeon, deceased, H.J. Rainsford, Gent., to be Ensign vice Russwurm.
     HOSPITAL STAFF- Surgeon T. Williams, M.D., from the 59th Foot, to be Staff Surgeon of the First Class, vice Thomas Forrest Cotton, who retires upon half-pay; Acting Assistant Surgeon Edward Burrowes Sinclair to be Assistant Surgeon to the Forces, vice Powell, promoted in the 59th Foot.
     UNATTACHED- Lieutenant W.B. Park, from the 26th Foot, to be Captain, without purchase.


Wednesday, June 27, 1849


     The "ninth general report of the Colonial Land and Emigration Commissioners," which has just issued, is a most important document. It appears that emigration during the year 1848 amounted to 248,089 persons, of whom 219,298 proceeded to North America-that is, 188,233 to the United States and only 31,065 to the British American colonies! In the preceeding year, 1847,  142,144 emigrated to the States, and 109,680 to the British colonies. Although "it is impossible to obtain very accurate information, it has been ascertained that the amount paid in the United States for passages, or remitted through houses at Liverpool and in Ireland for intending emigrants (not including the house of Baring, Brothers, at Liverpool) was during the year 1948, upwards of 460,000."
     From Canada, it appears, that of the 27, 939 persons who landed there in 1848, no fewer than 7,411-about 25 per cent-at once proceeded to the United States. It is reported that "the emigration of 1848," Mr. Buchanan says, "so far as health and condition are concerned, bears a most favourable comparison with that of 1847. The death on the passage, which were 273, amount to little more than one per cent, on the whole number embarked."
     The Irish Female Orphans have been well received in South Australia. The Commissioners report "this emigration being of a novel character, has occupied our most earnest attention, and some of these young people, previous to embarcation, have been examined by a member of the Board. We have been much gratified by the intelligence recently received from the colony, that although in the first instance a prejudice was conceived against them, this feeling has given way before the good conduct of those who were first engaged, that all the remainder have been immediately taken off and that the colony would willingly receive more of the same description." The Governor's report contains an application that 300 or 400 more young females should be sent out within the year. "It is impossible to over-rate the boon which this emigration confers upon a class entitled to public sympathy, but not enjoying in this country any prospects of a fair opening to secure an honest and independent livelihood. How many might be saved from the "living death" they are driven to by poverty and misery.
     The Colonial Government in New South Wales have complained to Earl Grey that, in a ship despatched last winter with female orphan girls from the Irish poor law houses, 52 street prostitutes were sent out from Belfast! An inquiry is ordered to take place into the matter.
     QUEBEC, JUNE 2- Return of the number of emigrants arrived from the opening of the navigation to this date:-
                                     Cabins     Steerage.
From England................72            1199
         Ireland..................13            3024
         Scotland...............16              139
         Germany............... 0                67
                                    101            4429
To corresponding period 1848 ...226   6217
     Of the emigrants by 18 Vessels arrived during the past week having 1923 passengers on board, but 5 deaths occurred on the passage, and eight were found sick on arrival at Grosse Isle.
     Chief Agent
     Emigration Department, Quebec
          26th May, 1849


     We find that in April and June of 1832, and in 1833, Dr. Stephens' saline treatment was tried in Coldbath-fields Prison, where there were at that period no less than 216 well-marked cases of Asiatic Cholera. Of these 514 were treated according to the mode introduced by Dr. Stephens, the deaths were only 31, or about 6 per cent. In the first 100 cases treated by Dr. Stephens, the deaths were only 5, leaving 97 per cent of recoveries. It is also well worthy of remark, that of these first 100 cases, 25 of the patients were in the pulseless collapse-stage of the disease before they came under treatment.
     The reader, unacquainted with the bitterness of spirit which actuates the doings of some men, and with the undying envy and consequent hatred of others, will scarcely believe, although it is evinced in the records of the Coldbath-fields Prison beyond all dispute, that by Dr. Stephen's treatment the mortality in upwards of 500 cases was only 6 per cent, this method has not been publicly recommended and generally adopted.- And well may he exclaim, "Can such things be!" if he further compares the above result with that given in the Times of February 13th, by which it appears that in a few places in Scotland, from October 1848 to February 11th, 1849, where the Board of Health's treatment was chiefly applied, in 9826 cases the deaths were 4285, or within a shade of 50 per cent; and the recoveries there certified were only 3074, or about 30 per cent, the remaining 20 per cent of the patients being still under treatment or unaccounted for.
     We have only to add, we have obtained a verified copy of the records at Coldbath-fields prison, relative to the Cholera of 1832 and 1833; and that a strict examination of this document has completely removed from our minds every shadow of doubt with respect to the truth of the statement originally made by Dr. Stephens, and more recently by Dr. Turley, namely, that the saline treatment as recommended by Dr. Stephens is actually the most successful of any that had been suggested."--Medical Times.

     OUR SANATORY STATE- The Sanitary  state of the town continues to be progressively interesting, as every effort is being made by both the mayor and the committee to have not only every street, but every cottage perfectly clean. Under providence these exertions have been productive of results, as we have not only had no Cholera here, but very few cases of contagious diseases either in private houses or public medical institutions. Our recent apprehensions of Cholera have considerably abated, and we hope by the blessing of God to continue an exception to so many other neighbouring towns which it has so fearfully visited.--Sligo Guardian.

     Sub constable Thomas Hanna, of Ballinacurra, is dismissed the forces for insubordination.

     Sir M. Barrington, Bart., Son & Jeffers, have given 50 to the Central Relief Committee.

     Old Jamaica and Barbadoes rum is selling in Cork at 6s. the gallon.

     Mr. Fox, M.P. for Longford and Mr. Roebuck, M.P. for Sheffield have explained and retracted, upon the intimation of an affair of honour from the former gentleman. Mr. Roebuck "the brindled cat" has withdrawn the term "falsehood" which he applied to Mr. Fox, and Mr. F the words "hired advocate of rebels" that he addressed to Mr. Roebuck.

    Private John Norris, 85th, shot himself in the barrack room at Waterford on Monday.

     Lieut. Charles F Higgins, of the Mayo Militia, was re-committed, on Tuesday, at Middlesex sessions in default of bail for outrageous conduct to his wife.

     The bill for the detection of sheep stealers in Ireland (known as Mr. Burke's Bill) passed through committee in the House of Lords on Thursday, it having also passed through the House of Commons. There is a certainty now of this useful measure speedily becoming law.

     The number of destitute persons on the out door relief lists in the Kilrush union exceed 30,000.

     On Friday Thomas Power, runner of the Carrick-on-Suir National Bank, absconded with a considerable sum of money.


     His Excellency, the Lord Lieutenant has been pleased to appoint the Rev. Joseph Aldrich Bermingham, M.A., Rector of Kellistown, in the diocese of Leighlin, and one of his Excellency's Chaplains, to the Deanery of the Catholic Church of Kilmacduagh, vacant by the promotion of the Very Rev. A.L. Kirwan, to the Deanery of Limerick.
     Her Majesty's letters patent have passed the seal appointing the Rev. William Higgins Bishop of Limerick, Ardfert and Aghadoe.
     The Rev. William Walker, Curate of Carrigaline, succeeds to the Incumbency of Fermoy, vacant by the promotion of the Rev. James White to the living of Inchigeela, diocese of Cork.

     Miss Maria Wilson, the daughter of a factory owner at Manchester, last week obtained 800 damages against Mr. John Douglas, of Armagh, for breach of promise of marriage, he having married Miss Bellhouse, also of Manchester, after he had been betrothed to Miss Wilson.

War Office, June 22

     4th Light Dragoons-Troop Sergeant Major John Hill to be Quartermaster, vice Tarleton, deceased.
     Coldstream Regiment of Foot Guards-Lieut. Col. Thomas Crombie, from half-pay Unattached to be Captain and lieut. Col. vice Charles Ash Windham who exchanges, Capt. the Hon. Arthur Edward Hardinge, from the 16th Foot, to be Lieut.and Capt. Vice Duncomb, who exchanges.
     16th Regiment of Foot-Lieut and Capt. George Thomas Duncomb from the Coldstream Regiment of Foot Guards to be Captain, vice Hardinge, who exchanges.
     17th- Ensign William Pollard to be Lieutenant, by purchase, vice Moore, who retires; Charles Petras Geneste, Gent., to be Ensign by purchase, vice Pollard.
     45th-Ensign Frederick Robert Grantham to be Lieutenant by purchase, vice Kippen, who retires; Ensign George Laimont Hobbs to be Lieutenant, by purchase, vice Sir Robert A.F.G. Calleton, Bart., who retires; Henry Lucas, be Ensign by purchase, vice Grantham, John James Lloyd Williams, Gent. to be Ensign by purchase, vice Hobbs.
     73d- Lieut. Charles Hoghton, to be Captain, without purchase, vice Hisse, deceased.
     82-Captain Henry Christopher Marriott, from the Royal Newfoundland Companies, to be Captain, vice West, who exchanges; Colour-Sergeant Samuel Spence from the 14th Foot to be Quartermaster, vice Robert Harre, dismissed the service by the sentence of a General Court Martial.
     90th-Ensign Vere Henry Close to be Lieutenant by purchase, vice the Hon. William Harbord, who retires; Ensign Walter Blakeney Persse, from the 99th Foot to be Ensign, vice Close.
     99th- Henry Frederick Winchelsea Ely, Gent., to be Ensign, by purchase, vice Persse, appointed to the 90th Foot.
     Ceylon Rifle Regiment-Second Lieutenant john Inman, to be First Lieutenant, without purchase, vice Dwyer, deceased.
     Royal Newfoundland Companies-Captain Osborn West from the 82nd Foot, to Captain, vice Marriott, who exchanges.
     Royal Malta Fencible Regiment-Assistant Surgeon Ludovico Bernard, M.D., to be Surgeon, vice Montarfaro, deceased.
     Brevet-Major General William Rowan, C.B., to have the local rank of Lieutenant-General in the army in Canada.
     Memorandum-The Christian names of Ensign Carrington, 26th Foot, are Frederick Alfred, not Frederick, as previously stated.




     The Cork and Bandon railway will be opened to Ballinhassig, half-way to Bandon, on the 1st August.
     Colonel Maberly is at present in Dublin on business connected with the post office altercations.
    Mr. Josias Broker, of Liverpool, has purchased, at Demerara, the Profit plantation for 10,220 dollars.
     Mr. Wombell, jun, was crushed to death by an elephant in the menagerie, at Coventry, on Sunday.
     The cholera hospital, at Cork, was finally closed on Friday, and the medical staff discharged.
     Dr. Langley, of Nenagh, was taken on Saturday by the police in the neighbourhood of Dublin.
     The Duke of Bedford pays the rate in aid for the tenantry on his Irish estates.
     There are 780 prisoners in Tralee gaol, including 77 transport convicts.
     The scythe is in general operation in the meadows about Limerick, and the yield is very productive.
     Tobacco is the most productive article of Customs revenue in the port of Limerick.
     The Ecclesiastical Board have commenced painting thirteen churches in the county Galway.
     Private Wall, 59th regiment, mutilated himself by a gunshot wound at Cork gaol while on duty there.
     On Tuesday at Kilmacshane, near Clonfert, a respectable farmer, named Pardy, was gored to death in a shocking manner by his own bull.
     A son of Mr. and Mrs. M.L. Apjohn, of Altabeg, was severely wounded in the arm and shoulder last week by the accidental explosion of a pistol.
     Major M'Kie, Poor Law Inspector, died last week in Galway, and was interred with military honours by the 68th Light Infantry.
     The Poor Law Commissioners are in the receipt of 40,000 monthly from the Treasury, for the relief of distressed unions in Ireland.
     A sealed order from the Poor Law Commissioners requires Cork union to pay 8,000 under the rate in aid act.
     The barque, Australasia, Captain J. Connel, has arrived at Kingstown from London, to embark 200 female convicts and 40 children for New South Wales.
     Professor Alridge is about to deliver a course of lectures on practical chemistry at Mountmellick, having been deputed by the Royal Dublin Society.
     There are in Kilrush workhouse and auxiliary workhouse over 2,200 paupers, 250 of whom are in the fever hospital and infirmary. Over 28,000 are on the outdoor relief list in the union.
     Messrs. Gurney and Foster, as a deputation from the Society of Friends, waited upon Prince Albert at Buckingham Palace, on Thursday, with a petition to the Queen, for the suppression of the slave trade.
     Captain George Grange is held to bail at Marlboro'-street office, for writing a letter to provoke a duel to P.H. Leicester, Esq., son of a clergyman, by whom the captain complained he lost 900.
    William Thompson, indicted at the Dublin Commission for the forgery of a bill of exchange for 50 on Sir Henry Meredyth, pleaded guilty and was sentenced to nine months' imprisonment, with hard labour.
     On Sunday morning the Dublin and Wicklow mountains were white and crisp with hoar frost. The same indication of temperature was observable in the contiguous counties of Carlow and Kildare.
     The army in Ireland this month consists of 2 troops of Royal Horse Artillery, and 12 companies of Royal Artillery, 10 regiments of cavalry, 24 regiments of infantry and 9 depots.
     The wife of the leading statesman of the Peel party, one who was a member of Sir Robert's cabinet, has just become a convert to the Roman Catholic faith. She is the daughter of a Scottish nobleman, and the conversion is from Presbyterian.
    NETTLES- It is a singular fact that steel dipped in the juice of the nettle becomes flexible, and lint dipped in nettle juice and put up to the nostril, has been known to stay the bleeding of the nose when all other remedies have failed.
     DEATH FROM SUFFOCATION- A respectable farmer named Lackey Healy, aged about 60 years, was choked by a piece of beef, while dining on Wednesday last, in Found-street. Dr. Lougheed, of this town, was called in immediately, but life was extinct before aid could be afforded. The portion of meat was unusually large.---Sligo Guardian
   WELSH SURNAMES- In Sweden, hereditary surnames are said to have been unknown before the commencement of the fourteenth century. At a much later period no surnames were used in Wales, beyond ap. or son, as David-ap-Howell, Even-ap-Rhys, Griffith-ap-Roger, John-ap-Richard, now very naturally corrupted into Powell, Price, Prodyer and Pritchard. To a like origin may be referred a considerable number of the surnames beginning with P and B now in use in England; amongst which may be mentioned Preece, Price, Pumphrey, Parry, Probert, Probyn, Pugh, Penry; Bevan, Bithal, Barry, Benyon and Bowers. It was not unusual, a century or two back, to hear of such combinations as Evan-ap-Griffith-ap-David-ap-Jenkin and so on to the seventh or eighth generation, so that an individual often carried his pedigree in his name.- The church of Langollen, in Wales, is said to be dedicated to St. Collen-ap-Gwynnawg-ap-Clandawaw-ap-Cowrda
-ap-Cardoe-Friechfras-ap-Llyn- Merim-ap-Elnion-Yerth-ap-Cunedda-Wiedig, a name that casts that of the Dutchman Inkervankodsdosapanchinkadrachdern nomenclature, some wag described cheese as being.
     Adam's own cousin-german by its birth

     SERIOUS OUTRAGE- An outrage of rather a serious nature was committed on the night of the 9th instant at about eleven o'clock. Three out-offices, the property of Sir Malby Crofton, R.M., Longford House, Bart., were set on fire by some evil disposed persons, which were totally consumed. No doubt can exist but that the work was that of an incendiary; as, when the roof fell in, a lighted coal was found under the eaves. We are at a loss what cause to assign this malicious outrage to as Sir Malby is universally beloved in the neighbourhood, and has only a short time since come into possession of his property and title on the death of his father, Sir James Crofton.--Sligo Guardian.

     UNEQUALLY YOKED-A marriage took place in the county Cavan, on Monday last, when a Miss Gibson pledged her troth and her obedience to a Master Bennett. The bride who is in her 74th year, has been thrice wedded, but vows that she never met any till now for whom she cared. The bridegroom is yet in his 'teens.--Armagh Guardian.

     A poor man named Patrick Roche was drowned on Friday in that part of the Shannon called the Ferry, beyond Kilrush. He swam from the shore after a conoe, which was drifting out to sea, but having ventured too far, he became exhausted, and sunk before assistance could reach him.

     A serious disclosure has taken place at the Dungarvan workhouse. It appears that 700 rations are returned daily for persons not in the house, some of whom are known to be dead for four years! Several other frauds have been discovered since. It is supposed that the union has altogether sustained a loss of 11,000

     A verdict of wilful murder has been returned against Thomas Power, a gate-keeper at Carrick-on-Suir workhouse, for ill-treatment to a pauper inmate which resulted in his death.

To the Editor of the Times.

    SIR- Since I last addressed you I have visited the unions of Tuam, Ballinrobe, Castlebar and Ballina.- A reference of the map of Ireland will show you the extent of ground I have passed over. In returning here I only travelled about 35 miles of ground, purposely having chosen my route so as to see the most I could of the country and the people. I made it a rule to go into every department of every unionhouse. I believe, with the exception of a few auxiliary houses, I have been in almost every ward and dormitory tenanted by these unions. In every instance of inspection since I last wrote, I have been accompanied by the resident poor law inspector; and I cannot express myself too strongly on the kind way in which these gentlemen and the vice-guardians extended to me every facility which could aid me in my object, I was allowed and encouraged to ask any questions I chose-to take copies of any documents in their possession.
     To give you some idea of the extent of pauperism which a journey of six days brought me in contact with, I will here state the number of in-door paupers I so far saw with my own eyes. I will then add the number of out-door paupers receiving relief from each union at the time of my visit, as given to me from the books of each union.
     In-door paupers in the union of -
          Tuam......................... 2,380
          Ballinrobe.................. 1,734
Being a total of.....................12,719 paupers under roof, to be daily fed, clothed and doctored.

     Out-door paupers in the union of-
            Ballinasloe................. 4,446
            Ballina...................... 24,503
Being a total of                     105201 paupers supposed to be destitute, and fed daily by the above union.
     From the above tables it then appears that at this time, in only five of the unions of Galway and Mayo, there are 117,920 individuals dependent on the poor rate; of which number 12,719 are actually under the poor law roof. To give you a still further insight into what an Irish union has to encounter, I will analyse the condition of the 40,000 paupers receiving out-door relief at Ballinarobe:-
     As heads of families.......11,000  706 were included
     Dependent upon them....29,000  231
                                          40,000  938
    Of the above                    3,000   987 were impotent cases;
     Having dependent on them 9,000  308
     There were ablebodied      7,000   721
     Dependent upon them      19,000   923
                                             40,000   938

     From the general appearance of the population, from the actual circumstances at this moment of those districts, I am satisfied the above numbers will yet fearfully increase, and that still, then, as now, the traveller's eye will have almost every mile to be shocked with the sight of vast numbers of the peasantry, with famine unmistakable marked on their brows. With regard to the workhouse generally, I can say of them, as I said of Ballinasloe, their cleanliness and order under all circumstances are most praiseworthy.

     *     *     *     *     *     *     *     *     *     *     *

     The new fever wards or hospitals at Ballinasloe, at Ballinrobe, and at Castlebar ,are constructed on plans in praise of which too much cannot be said; at Ballina, one of the same nature is also in progress, everything which can tend to secure good drainage and ventilation has been studied, and I think most successfully in these buildings.
     At Castlebar I was much struck with the extreme attention given by the medical officer to providing the sick and convalescent with everything which could tend to their comfort, and this not by putting the union to any extra expense, but simply by inducing them to allow the ablebodied paupers to occupy their time in laying out and keeping exercising grounds, &c., with some taste, and some aim at a cheerful, ornamental character instead of idling over the work of languidly cracking stones, never likely to be put to any profitable account.
     At Ballina, a union in which I was told should fine the greatest amount of misery, I was delighted at the appearance of the paupers throughout all the establishments, with the exception alone of some fever sheds, in which the heat was almost insupportable-in my opinion, the ventilation imperfect and certainly the details less cleanly than they should be; but it is fair to say that these sheds are not under the vice-guardians immediate jurisdiction and are merely temporary affairs. The physical appearance of the children- there were 1,018 boys, 905 girls- was far better than that of any I have seen; I attribute this in some degree to the healthy situation of the house, again to the excellent sanitary regulations which pervade it; no amount of water is spared on person or thing; again, the medical officer, in my opinion, most wisely argues, that it is wise, as well as in the end economical, to aim by improved diet to preserve health in the halls, rather than to wait till the children fall from the halls on the sick list; his plan seems to be judiciously to attack debility while it is debility, instead of waiting till it has become disease.
     Very great attempts are making in most of the union houses to turn the in-door labour to some account. At Tuam they are introducing a great many youths as shoemakers. the active vice-guardian, Mr. Bell, has set every hand he can to some work or another-the lace pillow, the spinning wheel, cutting out and making articles of linen for the use of the house; wherever he can invent or promote work, in contradistinction to the stone-breaking farce, he has done it. At Ballina they showed me sheeting and bedding to a large amount which they had on the premises. I was glad to see in several of these unions the pains taken in the education of the children; the schools at Tuam and at Ballina, at the latter especially, would have done no discredit to the best of our English establishments.
     In England, Sir, you have little idea of what the difficulties are, which beset the administration of the Poor Law in this famine-stricken land; the small rate-payers are but one short stage removed from actual pauperism. A large proportion of landowners are utterly ruined, many of them at hide and seek with bailiffs; the trade of the town is as nil.- while the rates, let them be as small as they may be, have to be met out of no profits; at least, three of the above unions are utterly, and in my opinion, irretrievably bankrupt. At Castlebar bailiffs are now in possession of all the houses. The day I was there, although certainly in one of the auxiliary houses noting could be more wanting than a supply of the most necessary articles of male costume, it came to my knowledge, that the authorities actually could not allow a bold contractor, ready to supply clothing, to bring the material to the house, lest it should be seized. At Ballina, the advances received from Government stand at 49,085 7s.3d., the net demand against the division to September, 1849, 42,964 4s. 1 1/2. I was shown letters from the various officers, vainly petitioning for the payment of their arrears of salary; also from small tradesmen, I suspect little superior in circumstance now to paupers. The whole of the machinery of the union would have come to a dead lock a short time since, had not the vice-guardians made themselves personally liable to the contractors for necessary supplies; in point of fact, these not overpaid officers stand at this moment in the position of men who have gallantly risked their own ruin to save the union from a state of things, the cost of which in human life and civil disturbance would have been most awful. On the 31st of May the liabilities of this union were 21,885; the money in the hands of the treasurer was 22 10s 11d; in that of relieving officers 252 17s 8 1/2d.
     I saw in no union such signs of resuscitation as I did in this; there was evidently an improvement in many places, as well in the size of occupations as in their cultivation; still, its present condition, without credit, without funds, at one of the most critical periods, is and must be to all concerned one of deep anxiety. A rat in total of 10,466 3s. 11d. is now in course of collection; of this 2,174 6s.5d in arrears; but such are the present circumstances of this unhappy country, that every fresh rate drags down fresh supplies of pauperism to join the present pressure for dependent support; it throws more land out of cultivation, more ablebodied out of employ; it drives out the few remaining small farmers who have any capital left with which to abscond or emigrate; it closes more shops, diminishes, in every conceivable way, all those processes of productive employment on the existence of which depends the very life of the community.
     And now, Sir, let me say a word about the condition of the peasantry who are, as yet, without the walls. I cannot exaggerate it; I will not, I dare not, paint it in all the awful colours which diligent inquiry and ocular inspection have presented ready mixed, to my hand. Famine is the prevailing type in which life seems to be printed throughout the whole district I travelled.
     I drove the same horse throughout, with the exception of a single stage; what hours were not given by actual workhouse inspection, or snatched for a very little sleep, I employed in a personal investigation of the condition of the peasantry wherever  I could bring it within my reach. Sad, Sir, as is the physical aspect of those whom workhouse diet has as yet failed to rally from their hunger bred debility. It is as nothing compared with that of tens of thousands who as yet exist unaided by the law. The public are apt to imagine that starvation in its extremity assumes some form of violence that it drives men necessarily to all manner of unknown horrors; the crew of a shop rescued on a raft from drowning; but with no water or food, or seeming hope of any, are by the very suddenness of the change, from abundance to utter want, driven, it is too true, to a madness which makes them as beasts of prey-upon each other. Not so is it with the famine stricken creatures I have lately seen; hoping against hope; struggling against the pressure of  hunger for months, knowing food may be obtained at the workhouse, but looking at the terms of its attainment as their last compromise with death, they have held on to their cabins and their little holdings till forced forth by eviction; or, their last resources having failed, and threatening fever, existing diarrhoea, having told them it must now be the union house or the union coffin, then, and not till then, will they close with the terms of the law, which then, alas! often comes too late to their aid; they are received into the probationary ward, quickly pass thence to the dysentery ward, thence their removal is one of which they know nothing-for they are dead.
     Thousands are content to walk miles daily to break stones as a test for 1lb of meal, per diem. While I feel it my duty to say that I am convinced that where out-relief is given, it is not given in quantity or quality sufficient to support a life of health, I am bound to say that such is the condition of things here, such the wheel within wheel of besetting difficulty with which the question of out relief is connected that I am not as yet prepared to argue how far the attempt should be made to extend its limits or its nature.
     It has been my habit from time to time to leave my car and center the cabins by the road side; it was enough to melt a heart of stone to see the people in them; in one instance, under the remains of the roof of a "tumbled down house," I found a mother and some small children; the latter, some of them quite naked, mere skeletons, but with that enlargement of the abdomen now so common amongst them. A thing of mere bone, of about three years old, lay on an old red pettycoat, looking as near death as I could have wished it. I gave the woman a loaf of bread; in one moment she had torn out a piece of it and place it in her mouth; I was about to point out to her to give some to the children, when with a look I shall never forget, she placed her finger in her mouth, drew out the moistened bread, and at once began to place it between the child's lips. She had placed the remains of the loaf by her side; one of the boys approached, to probably stare at the apparition; she roughly pushed him from her; and at once hid it under her, and never heeding me, even to thank me, she still tried to force the chewed food into that half-corpse's mouth. As I turned to leave the cottage she sprang on her knees, and her very blessings were terrible; the loaf had just cost me two pence. At another spot there was a wretched hovel, at the door of which a scarce clad girl was sitting; I rashly beckoned to her, and taking a loaf from the well of my car I threw it at her; in a moment a crowd of beings rushed from the cabin, and a struggle began for the prize, in which all feelings for sex and age were forgotten; it was only by no small force I secured the prize for the girl, it was with difficulty we could master the croup that had then surrounded us; we did what we could to give them at least one meal. The "prasha weed," or corn kail with nettles, is now so sought that serious damage is often done to the corn by the poor creatures who thus try to live.
    I am still, Sir, of the opinion, I expressed in my last letter; though there may be cases in which these starving creatures will eat unclean, unusual animal food, these cases are comparatively very rare. I admit I have received, on evidence I cannot doubt, proof that foals, young asses, breeding sows, that have died unbutchered-sheep stolen, hidden, then eaten when decomposed &c. have in some instances stood between famine and its victims; but I cannot deny that I have in my experience known cases in my own country of equally cross appetite, induced by far less want.
          Ballinasloe,                      S.G.O.

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