The Kilkenny Independent
Wednesday, November 27, 1827
MRS. FRY'S REPORT
Mrs. Fry and Mr. J. Gurney have published the fruits of their recent travels in Ireland, under the title of "Report of Mrs. Fry and Mr. J.J.Gurney to the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, respecting their late visit to that country." Like all impartial persons who have ever visited Ireland, whether from the North, South, East, or West, Mrs. Fry and her friend recommend the abolition of civil disabilities as an essential preliminary to the settlement of the country. "Abounding in gratitude (they say) as are the Irish, when justly and kindly treated, we presume it will be allowed that they are, in no common degree, alive to a sense of wrong-that when injured and deprived of their just rights, they have both the acuteness to discern it, and the heart to feel it, and presently harbour a deeply-rooted sentiment of disaffection and revenge. We conceive that we should be stepping out of our true province were we to offer a direct opinion on that perplexing and agitating question-"Roman Catholic Emancipation;" but we trust we shall no offend the Lord Lieutentant by an expression of the general sentiment, that there never was a people in whose management a perfect equity and impartiality was more evidently requisite than the people of Ireland-that it is, in the highest degree, desirable that every class of the King's subjects in that country should, so far as is consistent with the safety of the state, be allowed the exercise of the same civil rights- and that the less the distinctions of religious opinions are insisted on and dragged to light, in connexion with the civil policy of the country, the greater will be the probability of its being blessed with a state of permanent tranquility. We lament that constant agitation of this irritating subject, which keeps perpetually open the wounds of Ireland; and cordially do we wish, that though the means of reasonable concession on both sides, the question might be settled, and forgotten for ever." They were also struck with the redundance of the population, compared with the employment for them, and they recommended the transfer of 3 or 400,000 of them to America, particularly Prince Edward's Island and Upper Canada. But this is impracticable for many reasons. They observe, that although "in consequence of the disadvantages under which the country now labours, the population seems to be excessive, there is surely strong reason to believe, that were the most made of the national resources, this apparent evil would cease... This, indeed, was the most striking feature which the picture of Ireland presented to our view. Scarcely any thing is made the most of. A fine and fruitful country is left in a state of partial and inadequate cultivation. A people gifted with as extraordinary vigour of both body and mind, and evidently designed for an elevated place in the scale of nations, is to a great extent ignorant of its own wants; and is therefore so far from putting forth its powers, that it appears to rest contented with filth, rags, disorder, wretched accommodations, and very inferior diet." The population is only redundant, because the resources of a fine and fertile country are not sufficiently called forth, and because the excessive competition of land as a means of subsistence gives to the landlord the power of exacting an inordinate rent, which prevents the wretched peasants from collecting capital to improve his cultivation. The Irish peasant, like the French peasant under the old regime, is obliged to affect a greater poverty than what he suffers, because the measure of the landlord's demand is the measure of the tenant's means, minus, the potatoes and water for himself and his young bog-trotters. The only hope we have of the ultimate improvement of Ireland, is in the increase of the immediate evil, and not in its relief by partial emigrations to America. If the English people were to be so foolish as to consent to paying one farthing for this object, it would afford immediate ease to the landlords, and they might rub on. While the whole country swarms with redundant people, the landlords cannot detrude without subjecting themselves to consequences to which, hard and unfeeling as they are, their nerves are not equal. But if the system continues, the population will eat up, in one way or other, the whole produce of the estates. This will necessarily compel the landlords to come to such a compromise with the people as the landlords of England and Scotland have come to. The Irish landlords will do nothing till mastered by circumstances.- But the time is approaching when circumstances will master them. The struggle is now between them and their peasantry; and as, thanks to the Poor Laws of this country, they can only rid themselves of a small number at a time (for it is only in the great towns that there is any opening, and there, whenever the market is overstocked, the emigrants are returned) and as men in no country, not even Ireland, will lie down and die, the land will be worth nothing to the landlords, till improvements are introduced. But we defy any man to introduce improvements without capitulating with the people. To show the way in which the Poor Laws of England compelled the Landlords to attend to the improvement of their Tenantry as well as their Estates, we give the following quotation from a work of an experienced Land Steward in the time of George the First (Lawrence):- "Tenants in the North who rent but small farms" (they have now the largest in the whole island) "have generally speaking, but little substance wherewith to make any expensive improvements. This indeed is a misfortune, but 'tis such a one as requires time to mend and alter. To alter farms and to turn several little ones into great ones, is a work of difficulty and time; for it would raise too great an odium to turn poor families into the wide world, by uniting farms all at once, in order to make an advance of rants. 'Tis much more reasonable and popular to content to stay till such farms fall into hand by death, before the tenant is either raised or turned out. I remember an instance in my surveys, of a gentleman who was for making small farms into great ones, all at once, the consequence whereof soon after appeared to be this; that the Church and poors' assessment fell so heavy upon the remaining tenants, that the Lord of the Manor was soon brought to discover his mistake by re-admitting the poor tenants, and disposing the farms partly in the same state they were in before, and to content himself to allow time to complete his desire of improving his estate in that way of making the farms larger. The true remedy, therefore, for this misfortune is, not the violent one of forcing them beyond their power, but the gentle and rational one of persuading and instructing them in all the thriving arts of making the best of their farms, that they may be able, not only to pay, but to advance their rents. I have known several instances of tenants that hold their lands at an easy old rent, and yet, for want of being instructed in the new methods of lime, turnips, grass seeds, &c. were still poor, and hardly able to pay that old rent, much less could they bear any advance; but yet, as soon as they became better instructed by the steward to practice all the best and latest methods of husbandry, they presently could bear an advance of rent; and not only suffered it, but grew richer upon it, and thrived better than they did before at the old rent." Necessity is the motehr of invention. When the Irish Landlords receive no rents (and we hope this will soon be the case), they will soon find out the good qualities of the Peasantry. It will be better to reside on their estates, or to sell them to those who will, than to receive rents.--Morning Chronicle.
|THE FIFTH OF NOVEMBER-
We have been informed, we hope erroneously, that the Rev. Mr. Crory, of
Drumlogh, actually preached to fourteen or fifteen Orange Lodges, in his
Meeting-House on Monday, 5th November, the Gunpowder Plot Anniversary! We
have also been told, that the Marquis of Downshire lectured his reverence pretty
soundly on the impropriety, if not illegality, of such conduct. We trust the
entire statement is false; and we shall give Mr. C. an opportunity of
contradicting it, if it be untrue. If not, we expect the Synod of Ulster will
adopt some measure, at the next annual meeting, which will put a stop to the
Clergymen of their body pursuing a line of conduct, which is eminently
calculated to perpetuate the miseries of our country.--Northern Whig.
BIRTH-On the 26th inst. at River-View, the Lady of Richard Colles, Esq. of a son.
DIED- At Urlingford, on the 21st instant, Francis Green, Esq. in this 76th year.- A Gentleman of unsullied integrity, and who, though a long life, endeared himself to all by his mildness and affability.
Names of the Gentlemen returned by the Judges of
Assize to serve the Office of High Sheriff for the ensuing year:-
ARMAGH-Barry Fox, Esq. Hunt Walsh Chambre, Esq. Henry Coote Bond, Esq.
CAVAN-Andrew Bell, Esq. George Burrowes, Esq. Charles James Adams, Esq.
CARLOW- John James Leckey, Esq. James Butler, Esq. Henry Falkener, Esq.
CLARE- James Malony, Esq. George O'Callaghan, Esq. Francis Gore, jun., Esq.
CORK- Lord Viscount Beerhaven, Michael Creag, Esq. Adam Newman, Esq.
DONEGAL- John Hart, Esq. Joseph Pratt, Esq. John Harvey, Esq.
DOWN- The Hon. Francis Jack Needham, Lord Viscount Newry, Daniel Delacherois, Esq. Trevor Corry, Esq.
DUBLIN- Hon. William Barbazon, Hon. E. Wingfield, George Alexander Hamilton, Esq.
FERMANAGH- Sir Henry Brocke, Bart. Hugh Montegomery, Esq. A.B. Upton Gledstones, Esq.
GALWAY- Sir George Shee, Bart. John Eyre, Esq. Dudley Persee, Esq.
KERRY- William Duncan Godfrey, Esq. Wm. Sanders, Esq. Thomas Herbert, Esq.
KILDARE- Robert Bourke, Esq. Sir Walter Dixon Burrowes, Bart. John James Pomeroy, Esq.
KILKENNY-Thomas Bookey, Esq. Richard Cox, Esq. George Hely, Esq.
KING'S COUNTY- Francis Longworth Dames, Esq. Colonel Hardress Lloyd, John Tibeaudo, Esq.
LEITRIM- Sir Josias Rowley, Bart. John O'Brien, Esq. Westby Perceval, Esq.
LIMERICK- Samuel Dickson, Esq. William Gameliel Fitzgerald Esq. John Croker, Esq.
LONGFORD- William Loydd Galbraith, Esq. Mollyneux Shouldham, Esq. Bevan Coates Slator, Esq.
LOUTH- Berkeley Buckingham Stafford, Esq. Franics Donough, Esq. William Henry Richardson, Esq.
MAYO- Patrick Kirwen, Esq. Arthur Knox Gore, Esq. Annesley Knox, jun, Esq.
MEATH- George Robert Bomford, Esq. Richard Bolton, Esq. Anthony Blackburne, Esq.
MONAGHAN- The Hon. Cadwallader Blaney, the Hon. Henry Montague Upton, Henry Westenra, Esq.
QUEEN'S COUNTY-John Staunton Rochefort, Esq. Lewis Moore, Esq. John Warburton, Esq.
ROSCOMMON- George Lloyd, Esq. R.H. French, Esq. Thomas Tennison, jun. Esq.
SLIGO- Sir Robert Gon Booth, Bart. Charels Keane O'Hara, Esq. Edward Joshua Cooper, Esq.
TIPPERARY- William Perry, Esq. William Ponsonby, Esq. Richard Martin Mansergh, Esq.
TYRONE- Mervyn Stuart, Esq. Anketel Moutray, Esq. John Ynyr Burges, Esq.
WATERFORD- John Keily, jun., Esq. John O'Dell, Esq. John Musgrave, Esq.
WEXFORD- Walter Hoare, Esq. Abel Ram, Esq. Henry Quin, Esq.
WICKLOW- Daniel Tighe, Esq. Francis Synge Hutchinson, Esq. James Andouin, Esq.
WEATMEATH- Robert Fitzherbert Batty, Esq. Robert Smith, Esq. Lieutenant-Colonel Daniel James Hearne.
At her seat, near Galway, the lady of
the Hon. Martin Ffrench, of a son.
In Cork, Major James Palmer,
Inspector-General of the Prisons throughout Ireland, to Elizabeth, eldest
daughter of the late Liwellen Nash, Esq. of Convamore, Co. Cork.
On Tuesday, se'nnight, at the Ursuline
Convent, Waterford, Catherine, daughter of the late Pierse Barron, sen.
Esq of Castletown, in the county Waterford.
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