Ireland Old News



THE CONNAUGHT JOURNAL
Galway, Thursday, December 2, 1824

STATEMENT OF DISEASE IN GALWAY

     The most prevalent maladies in this town and neighbourhood for the last year, are stated from the following Report of Dr. O'MALEY, whose practical intercourse with them through the medium of the Dispensary, affords him an unlimited facility of offering the most correct observations:
     Fever has been on the decline; however, many cases have occurred sporadicaly, and at least seven tenths, of the intermediate type, termed Synochus, or simple continues; the remainder mild Typhus, with a few instances of the malignant variety. Holding in mind the assertion of Sir George Baker, that the science of Physic rarely admits of any perpetual precepts, and the best of medicines do harm, if not adapted to the patient as well as the disease; the treatment of these cases under his care have been accordingly diversified, and with the most gratifying success.
     Pneumonia, (inflammation of the lungs and its coverings,) has occasionally existed; in subordinate train, Cattarh, with Pleuralgia, (pain of breast, &c.) being exceedingly frequent; those have generally yielded in the ordinary active treatment. A few cases of Pneumonia Typhoides (inflamed lungs with Typhus fever) have also taken place during the autumn.
     Inflammatory sore throat often presents itself, owing to the vicissitudes of our atmosphere; and Hepatitis (liver complaint) is a frequent assailant from the same cause, aerial inclemency, and another powerful agent, immoderate spirituous potation.
     That Morbid Proteus Rheumatism, acute or chronic, doth constantly uphold a relentless sway, and concentrates, in many individuals, the keenest pangs of enfeebled humanity.
          "A subtle fiend  that mimicks all the plagues,
          " Rapid and restless, springs from part to part."
                               ARMSTRONG.
     Dispepsia (indigestion) and Corrdialgia (spasmodic pain of stomach) in its different varieties, have been, and must be, incessantly frequent in occurrence, until the vapid and scanty food of our squalid poor be succeeded by a more generous and abundant, and the depressing cassius under which they dwindle, fade before the consolatory prospect of emelioration. Of all diseases which engage the attention of Nosologists, Dysentery & Diarhoea have for the last months stalked with m?? relentless gripe through these wretched domiciles of incomprehensible misery, the hovels of the poor.
     These diseases, so different in their nature, have been principally excited by the same causes, namely, no wholesome diet, and deficiency of warm vesture; dysentery indubitably becoming contagious among them, from the limited extent and offensive uncleanliness of their dwellings. This circumstance is worthy of remark, as the Dysentery of these latitudes is seldom contagious, unless under the conditions already mentioned, or when concomitant with epidemic Typhoid affections.- Colic is a malady that next in order rears is stand and among the indigent; frequent cold and wet and indigestible esculents act as its occasional causes; in many instances it has yielded its grasp in the last mentioned genus Dysentery, and in a few has been the precursor of a more certain harbinger of death, Enteritis (inflammation of the bowels.)
     The Cholera of our clime, though comparatively imbecile to that of the southern part of the Asiatic region, is a formidable malady, that has occasionally occurred during the estival and autumnal seasons, but in an immediate and decisive practice has invariably yielded.
     Hoemophilis (spitting blood) often appears here, but when unconnected with any other affection, is seldom fatal. It, or inflamed lungs, sometimes is a variety of consumption named Inposthumutous, Phthisis, which, with another variety (Tubercular) have occurred here within the last year much less frequently than could be expected from the vicissitudes of atmospheric temperature. It has been computed that in England this disease carries off one-fourth of the population, in Paris, one-fifth, in Vienna, one-sixth, while in Russia it is by no means common, and in tropical climates still less so, from the greater uniformity of their atmosphere, either frigid or torrid. Asthma also constantly presents itself, and unless when produced from malformation, is generally a senile disease, sometimes closing its career with the induction of others.
     Dropsy is a malady that the most inattentive observer must at some period have remarked in its populous precinct; in truth, it is one of frequent occurrence among the lower class, because it is for the most part a disease of debility. We usually find that it has been preceded by some species of protracted fever, and in other instances nurtured by an abuse of ardent spirits, inanition, hard labour and a long exposure to wet and cold, which, sapping the constitutive vitality of the frame, induce affections of the stomach, and more particularly the liver, wherefore the digestive organs becoming frail, institute in various ways the complaint in question. Here these lines of Horace may be pertinently cited-
          Nec-misi causa morbi
          Fugerit venis, et aquasus albo.
                      Corpore lainguo.
     It being obvious that the privations which the Pauper victims of this disease must endure in point of regiment and other comforts, will constantly uphold a portentous barrier to the general success of the most judicious sanative process, although in some instances recoveries have been achieved.
     In closing this brief detail of the most prevalent diseases of adults, it is requisite to notice that many varieties of cutaneous affection exist, as if fostered among the lower order, while various other species of malady appear so frequently, that a distinct report of them, through the medium of a Newspaper, would be prolix and irksome to the reader. Another opportunity shall be taken to illustrate the most prevalent diseases of females and children.

DISCOVERY OF THE NOTES ROBBED from the TULLAMORE POSTBOY.

     A person named Bernard Sheridan, of rather suspicious appearance, was taken up a few days ago in Loughrea by Serjeant Telford, of he Police, stationed there, who immediately took him to this Town; but suspecting that he might have been concerned in the above robbery, discovered the home in which his wife resided, at the West Suburbs, and there found on her person upwards of 500l. in notes, the numbers of which exactly correspond with those given in the notice of reward. Great praise is due to the above active Officer, through whose agency we are persuaded more of the notes taken will yet be had.

DIED.

    This morning, in High-street, Samuel Ruxton, Esq., Attorney- a gentleman extremely regretted by his friends and acquaintance.

 

PROVINCIAL INTELLIGENCE

    MURDER NEAR NEWRY - On Saturday morning last, the body of a young man named Thomas Doyle, aged 17 years of age, was found lying on the Dublin road, about a mile and a half from this town. An adjourned inquest was held Sunday before S. Reid, Esq., Coroner; when the body was examined by Surgeon Browne, and then slugs extracted from the head of the deceased. Several witnesses were examined but nothing was elicited from them calculated to lead to the discovery of the perpetrators of this foul deed. It simply appeared in evidence that the deceased had been sent by his employers, Messrs. Anderson and Greers, with two led horses to assist the Mail Coach over the hills, between this town and Dundalk.- The substance of the verdict was, that the deceased was killed by some person or persons unknown.-- Newry Paper.

    An inoffensive man, named Andrew Falls, was waylaid and beaten, returning from the fair of Trillick, on the evening of the 14th instant, and on Monday se'nnight, as Gerald Noble, a respectable man in the vicinity of Lisbellaw, was returning home from the butter market in this town, he was attacked and beaten in the most barbarous manner. This savage act is supposed to have occasioned the beating of the persons in their houses, between this town and Lisbellaw, stated in our last.-- Enniskillen Paper.

 

MAGDALEN ASYLUM

     It will be found by the Resolutions this evening, that this great desideratum has, at length, been placed on a permanent footing. The subscriptions, (the list of which is given,) promise fairly to render this institution a source of great and permanent advantage to the morals of the rising generation, and, indeed, to society in general. To the excellent individuals who have originated this institution, words can be of little consequence; but the anticipation of good that must flow from it is calculated to create in their breasts sensations of an enviable description, far superior to the praises of men.

MAGDALEN ASYLUM

      AT a MEETING of LADIES, held at the MAGDALEN ASYLUM, on WEDNESDAY, NOV. 24, 1824, to consider the best means for the Support and Management of the Institution, it was resolved that said Asylum be forthwith Opened for Poor Penitent Females, and that an Association of Ladies be now formed, by whose zeal and exertions, as well as contribution, the Establishment may be rendered successful and permanent.- This Association to be named "THE ST. MAGDALEN SOCIETY."
     Resolved, That every Lady, contributing by a Yearly Subscription, be a Member of said Society.
     Resolved, That the business of said Society be to raise subscriptions, to inspect the accounts of the income and disbursements, to procure materials of labour for the Penitents, and other suitable resources of livelihood.
     Resolved, As it may be of essential benefit to the reclaimed Females whom they return converted to the bosom of Society, to be totally unknown, that the internal management of the Asylum be confided to Miss LYNCH, of Naniz, as far as relates to all intercourse with the Penitents; and that, therefore, the enclosures of the Asylum be never opened to any visitor whatsoever.
     Resolved, That the admission of a Penitent be regulated as follows:- That no Female be received until she shall have been three months reclaimed from the crimes-that it is absolutely necessary that she shall have been under the care of some Clergyman during that period-and that, after having given each proof of her sincerity, she obtain a certificate of same, from such Clergyman, & that such certificate be only granted not on hearsay, but accurate observation- that during such time of probation, the Penitent must not have been seen ever in one instance to have held intercourse of any sort with her former evil companion; and that she shall have lodged in the house, and under the consideration of, some unsubjectionable and honest housekeeper, who may give testimony of her mildness, repentance, sobriety, and regularity as to hours and strict propriety-that during such period of probation such extern Penitent receive her daily support, of the simplest kind, from Miss LYNCH, at the hour she should come to receive instruction; as also, that she be supplied with some materials of industry, the produce of which to go towards defraying the expences of lodging.
     Resolved, That any Female giving these proofs of her repentance, be admitted, after three months of probation, dated from the day she shall have notified Miss LYNCH, or any Clergyman, her desire of entering the Asylum.
     Resolved, That Friday being the day on which our REDEEMER shed his blood to save the sinner, be also the day of admission to such poor Penitents as d.s.c to be saved.
     Resolved, That a Subscription be now made towards the support of this Asylum, and that Mrs. B. MARTYN be requested to act as Treasurer, and Rev. P. DALY as Secretary to the Institution.
     Resolved, That our warmest Thanks are due, and hereby given, to the kind and generous Ladies and Gentlemen in Dublin, who have hitherto subscribed towards the repairs of these Premises, and whose patronage is of such advantage and utility to the Asylum; and that a Newspaper, containing these, our Resolutions, be forwarded by our Secretary to each of them.

        ORIGINAL SUBSCRIBERS.

James H. Burke, Esq. 5.0.0
Warden Ffrench 2.5.5
Reverend Patrick Mooney 1.2.2
Reverend John Lowthar 1.2.2
Reverend James Ffrench 1.2.9
Reverend Austin M'Dermott 1.2.9
Reverend John Fallon 1.2.9
Reverend Mark Finn 1.2.9
Reverend Peter Daly 1.2.9
Reverend Mathias Joyce 0.11.4 1/2
Reverend Laurence O'Donnell 1.2.9
Walter Joyce, Esq. 1.2.9
James Joyce, Esq. 1.2.9
Colonel Blake 1.2.2
Richard Adams, Esq. 1.2.9
James Lynch, Castle, 1.2.9
Patt M. Burke, Esq. 1.2.9
Edward M'Donnell, Esq. 1.0.0
Denis and Hugh Clarke, 1.2.9
Laughlin M'Laughlin, Esq. 1.2.9
John Moore, Esq. 1.0.0
James Burke, Esq (Back-street) 1.0.0
Reverend Patrick M'Dermott 1.2.9
Reverend John Molloy 1.2.9
Austin Quin, Esq. 0.10.0
Redmond Comins 0.10.0
Mrs. Cox 1.0.0
Miss French 1.0.0
Miss Bidilin Lynch 1.0.0
Thomas Redington, Esq. Glenale 5.0.0
Henry Persse, Esq. 1.0.0
Miss Martin, High-street 1.2.9
James Mahon, Esq. 1.0.0
John Clayton 1.2.9
Martin Kineavy 0.10.0
Doctor Veitch 1.2.9
Patt Joyce, Dominick-street 1.2.9
Sir Capel Mulineaux, Dublin 1.2.9
Lady Mulineaux, do. 1.2.9
Hon. Henry Caufield, do. 1.2.9
Mrs. Latouche, do. 1.2.9
Coll Kelly 1.0.0
The Misses Gardiner 5.0.0

NEW SUBSCRIBERS

Mrs. Lynch, Lombard-street 3.0.0
An Unknown 2.5.5
Miss Lynch, Lombard-street 1.2.9
Miss M. Lynch, do. 1.2.9
Mrs. Martin, Back-street 1.2.9
Mrs. Doctor Martin 1.0.0
Honourable Mrs. Mullins 2.5.6
Mrs. O'Flaherty, Knockbane 2.5.6
Mrs. O'Flaherty, Kingston 1.2.2
Mrs. O'Flaherty, ditto 1.2.9
Miss Eliza O'Flaherty, Bath-Lodge 1.2.9
Mrs. Joyce, Merview 2.5.6
Miss Joyce, ditto 1.2.9
Mrs. Joyce, Square 1.2.9
Mrs. Gale 1.2.9
Mrs. Baldwin 1.0.0
Mrs. Blake, Prospect-hill 1.2.9
Miss Nally, 1.0.0
Mrs. Hynes, 1.0.0
Mrs. O'Flaherty, High-street (donation) 1.0.0

     The Secretary takes this opportunity of acknowledging the receipt of the Subscriptions of the Ladies and Gentlemen of Dublin, who have patronized the Institution and to apologise for not having done so last Spring when the money was received.

THE CONNAUGHT JOURNAL
Galway, Monday, December 6, 1824

CATHOLIC CORPORATION

     WE, the undersigned Inhabitants of the Town of Galway, request a General Meeting of the Non-Tribes, at the hour of One o'Clock, at Connelly's Great Rooms, Eyre's square, on Wednesday next, to take into consideration the best mode of freeing themselves from the odious and degrading system so long and so unjustly exercised by Persons, calling themselves "The Galway Families" in the exclusive Election of Wardens and Vicars.:

John Burke Francis
Patrick M. Burke, Danesfield
Richard Adams
Francis Comyn
James Burke
Denis Clarke
John Ireland
James Fynn
Charles Costello
John Kelly
Michael Kelly
Richard Burke
Laurence Burke
Henry Baldwin
Francis O'Flaherty, Kingston
Anthony O'Flaherty
John Clayton
Pat Clayton
Coll Kelly
William Murphy
John Ryan
James Cahill, M.D.
James Knight
Patrick Ferrall.

 

     BIRTH- At Moy-Abbey, King's County, the Lady of H.M. Mathews, Esq., of a daughter.     

TO BE LET
And Immediate Possession given,

     ABOUT Two Hundred and Eighty-two Acres part of the Lands of CARNMORE, either in the whole or in separate Divisions. Encouragement will be given to solvent Tenants for Improvements.
     Proposals (in writing only) to be addressed to M. Blake, Esq., Tower-hill, Ballyglass; and to M. Dowdall, Esq. Tyaquin, Moinvea.
                                  MICHAEL DOWDALL.
December 6, 1824

 

WINTER GRASS
TO BE LET
Till the First of May next, 20 Acres of the
LANDS OF MOOR-AUGHINE
Near Castle-Lambert.

     SAID LANDS are preserved since May last and are extremely good for Sheep and Black Cattle; also well Watered and Divided.
     Application to James Burke, Esq., Prospect Athenry, 
December 6, 1824

 

TO BE SOLD BY AUCTION

In the Matter of   } AT the COUNTY HALL, in
Peter Lawless,    } the Town of Galway, on the 
An Insolvent.      } 21st day of December next, Lot
_____________} No. 1. Whatever Reversionary 
Right or interest the said Insolvent has or may have, or claim, after the death of Elizabeth Lawless otherwise Ward, his wife, of in and to the one-half Share or Moity, of all that and those, the Mills and Houses on the West Bridge, in the ton of Galway, known by the name of "Ward's Mills and Houses" with the Appurtenances now let insolvent tenants.
     These Premises are held under a lease from J. Blake, of Forhough, Esq. for a term of 999 years, from 1793, subject only to the trifling yearly rent of 17.
     Lot No. 2, Whatever Right, Title, or Interest said Insolvent now has in and to the one undivided fourth part of the Four Quarters of the Lands of URRISLANEW or IRRISLANEW, in the County of Galway.
     A statement of the Insolvent's Title to the above Premises, and further particulars, may be known by application to John Galway, the Assignee of said Insolvent, 11, Summer-hall, Dublin.
December 6, 1824.

 

 

THE CONNAUGHT JOURNAL
Galway, Monday, December 6, 1824

PROVINCIAL INTELLIGENCE

     MAGHERA, CO. DERRY , Nov. 22 - On the 12th alt., as Doctor M'Collough, alte of his Majesty's 8th foot, had retired to bed, Mrs. M'Collough discovered that some flax on a table was on fire, when she called out to the Doctor, who lost no time in getting up; and, in consequence of his great exertions in saving his wife and children from the devouring flames, he was burned in a most shocking manner, which confined him to bed upwards of five weeks, with little hopes of recovery. The fire was so rapid at the house, wearing apparel, furniture, &c. were consumed almost in an instant, although the inhabitants, together with Captain Burgess and his party, rendered every assistance without effect. Two of the children had a most miraculous escape, as several attempts were made, in the front part of the house, to save them, but all in vain. However, a brother of the Doctor said, he would bring them out dead or alive, or perish himself in the attempt. He ran to the rear, and entered through a small window and succeeded in rescuing them from an untimely end. One of the children's arms was severely burned. Much credit and praise is due to the Rev. James Spencer Knox, son to the Lord Bishop of Derry, who stepped forward at the time when this dire catastrophe took place to comfort and relieve this distressed family.

     TRALEE, DEC. 1 - A melancholy case of poison occurred on Saturday last. A man employed to poison rats at Oak-park, the seat of John Bateman, Esq., incautiously left behind him a cake made up for this purpose. A young woman named Ellen Moriarty, who lived at the Rock, in this town, and who received occasional employment at Oak-park, observing the cake, asked, and obtained permission of the maid servant to take it away; having returned home, and baked the cake, she ate some portion of it, and in two minutes after was taken violently ill. She remained in dreadful tortures for six or seven hours, when she expired, at the infirmary, whither she had been conveyed. The cake was composed of flour, sugar and arsenic.
     We understand that the unhappy sufferer was to have been married on the very day on which her existence so miserably terminated.

     MULLINGAR, DEC. 3 - A few days ago, the house of Mr. Andrew Wilder, of Oldtown, in this County, was entered by two men in Mr. Wilder's absence, who compelled the servant girl to go with them through the house while they searched for fire-arms; they succeeded in finding Mr. Wilder's fowling-piece which they carried off. Several men were apprehended on the following day by the police constables, on suspicion, and brought before W.D. Meares, Esq., Magistrate. On the following Sunday, we are informed, the gun was restored to its right owner, thru the intelligence of the Priest of the Parish.

     Sunday night, a barbarous and cruel murder was committed at Bilboa, in the barony of Coonagh, in this county. About 10 o'clock that night, a party of men consisting of 10 or 12 armed with scythes, pitchforks, and swords, attacked and broke into the house of a farmer named Daniel Connell, who, with his brother, had taken 88 acres of land, on Lord Stradbrooke's estate in that neighbourhood, of which the former tenants were dispossessed in March last. After they had got into the house, in which were Daniel Connell and his brother and sister, Michael and Honora, and some female relations, they attacked them all indiscriminately with the murderous weapons they carried and gave the elder brother, Daniel, so severe a beating or rather a backing, that almost immediately death was the consequence- his brains were beaten out and his nose cut off. The other brother, their sister, and one of their relatives, were cut in a shocking manner, and were received yesterday into the County Infirmary, where every attention continues to be paid them. The name of the woman who was beaten is Bridget Connell.- An inquest was held on the body of the murdered man yesterday, at which Surgeon Franklin, jun. of the County police, attended, when a verdict of "Wilful Murder" was returned, against several persons who are known. Mr. Dames, of the barony in which the murder was committed, has been unremitting in his exertions to discover the lawless perpetrators of this outrage, and has apprehended three persons, named Ryan, from Newport, the former occupiers of the farm one of whom was identified, as belonging to the party, " by the surviving brother, on Monday. There is every reason to hope that the monsters who committed this disgraceful outrage will be brought to condign punishment. It may not be irrelevant to state, that the land on which this outrage was committed, is that from which so many families were ejected in April last, and turned out on the road-side, to which we alluded to at the time.-- Limerick Paper.

    Last week, two men in the employ of Edmond O'Meagher, Esq., of Marlhill, and another in that of R. Phillips, Esq. were visited by parties of Rockites and menaced with death if they did not give up their farms and situations.

     The drying-house belonging to Mr. Burke's woollen factory, at Miltown, was accidentally set on fire yesterday morning, and totally consumed together with about 50 stone of wool.-- Dublin E. Post.

     We have authority to state that law proceedings have been taken against the Rev. John Galbraith, Rector of Killereran, by the Rev. William Jennings, P.P. for defamation of character.-- Dublin Paper.

 

CATHOLIC RENT
[FROM THE DUBLIN EVENING POST OF THURSDAY]

     The Association met to-day at half past two o'clock immediately after this hour the room became crowded. Many Protestant Gentlemen were present.
     JAMES O'CONNEL, Esq, was called to the Chair.  
     The Committee of Finance at that hour reported the following sums, as received on account of the Rent since the last day of meeting, viz:

Phelix M'Manux, Esq, Scralbeg, County Cavan...7.10.0
James Mullen, Rahan and Lynelly, King's County...20.0.0
Per W.E. Andrews, Esq, London, Anonymous...1.1.0
Per T.T. Clarke, Esq. of Twokeys, County Middlesex, his subscription...3.8.1/4
Michael Meagher, Bounca and Corbally, Tipperary...4.0.0
John M'Donnell, Granard, Longford...2.0.0
F. Bellew, Timonfeehan, Louth...7.7.4
The subscriptions of the Rev. Mr. B. M'Kevil and H. Clarke, Esq., do...2.5.6
John Molony, Esq., Roscarberry, Cork...9.0.0
James Mahon, Donohill and Annacarthy, Tipperary...15.?.0
W. Beamish, Esq. of Beaumont, Co Cork, his subscription...10.0.0
Rev. E. Redmond, Arklow, Wicklow...28.0.0
Committee, per Luke Eiffe, Esq, Treasurer, Ratnath, Dublin...10.0.6
Henry Mullholland, Esq, Lisburn, deducting the 18s 3d charges, Antrim...14.9.0
William Maher, Thurles, Tiperary...11.0.0
William Delany, Durrow and Cullahill, Kilkenny...10.0.0
P. Brady, Unry and Arragcliff, Cavan...38.10.0
Patt Miller, Swords, Dublin...16.0.0
Rev. Mr. Murphy, Corofin, including his subscription, Clare...5.0.0
John O'Brien, Esq, Elmvale, Co Clare, his subscription, allocated to Corofin...5.13.0
Thomas Gaffney, Treasurer, Ringsend, Dublin...17.2.0
Surgeon K. Delany, Rathdowney and Kilismeista, Queen's Co...21.0.0
Patt Quinn, Holycross, Tipperary...12.0.0
John O'Connell, North Parish, Cork...20.0.0
Rev. A. Rogers, Togher, Louth...10.0.0
W. Brett, Secretary, St. Nicholas and St. John's Dundalk, do...30.0.0
Richard O'Callaghan, Naas, including the subscription of James Byrne, Sallins, Kildare...5.2.9
Patt Donnellan, donation from passengers in the Huband, Grand Canal passage boat...0.12.6
A Fitzsimon, Bray, exclusive of 3l.8s. expenses, Wicklow...6.13.3 1/2
Rev J.M'Eniry, Torquhy, Devon, his subscription...1.5.0
Per do the subscription of an Irish Catholic Priest...2.0.0
Subscription, per Dr. O'Donnovan, Cove, Rev Mr. Quin, Rev Mr Mahony and I O'Donovan, allocated, do...4.11.0
N Kelly, Esq, Killarney, Monaghan...6.10.0
A Markey, Esq, Layonboy, Dundee, his subscription...1.3.0
Reverend Lawrence Mahony, Churchtown, Cork...9.0.0
John Adams, Esq, Ferbane, King's Co...3.0.0
J M'Mahon, Pallasgreen, Limerick...20.0.0
M M'Donnell, Westport, Mayo...30.3.7
Lawrence Fahy, Loughrea, Galway...3?.0.0
J. O'Shaughnessy, Roscrea, Tipperary,...16.0.0
J.P. Harle, Kilinnery and Moveddy, including the subscription of the Rev. Mr. Magrath, Cork...9.17.2
Patt Maher, Suncroft, Kildare, 15.0.0
Mrs. P. Doyle, per John Kiely, Sutton's Parish, Wexford...5.13.9
Thomas Morgan, St. Michan's., Dublin...7.13.5 1/2
Jeremiah Kelly, Stradbally, Queen's Co...15.10.0
Peter Rungier, Rowlestown and Old Town, exclusive of 3s 7s 7d expenses, Dublin...6.12.9
Twenty new Members from Armagh...22.15.0
J Horan, Baltinglass, Stratford on Slaney and Bumho-hall, Wicklow...20.0.0
Rev. James O'Donohue, per J Rhatigan, Esq, Edgworthstown, Longford...8.15.4 1/2
                         Total               599.5.4

MARRIAGES BY ROMAN CATHOLIC CLERGY
(From the Derry Journal)

     On Tuesday last, two females of the name of Loudon, together with John Kyle, William Quigley and Frederick O'Kane were committed by the Magistrates at Petty Sessions, held at Newtown-Limivady, for refusing, on being duly summoned for the purpose to give evidence of an illegal marriage, celebrated by a Roman Catholic Priest, between Kyle and Quigley, who are Roman Catholics, and the two Loudons, who are Protestant Dissenters. The act under which the parties were committed is highly penal, and makes it not only a capital felony in  the Priest, who marries Catholics and Protestants, but also empowers the Magistrates to commit, for three years, any of the parties present who refuse to be examined, or give evidence as to the offence having been committed. The above parties peremptorily refused to be examined, and the Magistrates had no alternative but to exercise the power vested in them by the statute. The parties, however, have since seen their error, and submitted to be examined. As soon as they intimated their intention, his Worship the Mayor, and Sir G. Hill, attended at the gaol, and took their examinations, and having entered into recognizance to prosecute, as required by the statute, they were immediately discharged. We approve highly of the decision with which the Magistrates acted in this matter, as it is become a common practice in that neighbourhood for Priests to celebrate marriages of this kind, whereby the peace of many families have been destroyed. The Parish Priest, whose Curate performed the above ceremony, having been lately implicated in a like offence, pleaded ignorance of the law, expressed his contrition, and gave a written undertaking not to err in future. We trust the Magistrates will follow up the present prosecution, so as to prevent a recurrence of this most nefarious system, which is calculated to sow dissensions among families, and sap the very foundation of Protestantism. If it be not put a stop to, the Maynooth practitioners will leave little for the Protestant Clergymen to do in the way of marriages; the fee exacted for these clandestine marriages is 1l. from each couple, at least such was paid in the two late instances. It may be useful to state that any Roman Catholic Priest convicted of the offense is, by the 33d Geo. III, subject to a fine of 500l. to his Majesty- the statute making it a capital offence,is, however, not repealed.

     

THE CONNAUGHT JOURNAL
Galway, Thursday, December 16, 1824

TEN POUNDS REWARD,

     FOR the Apprehension of THOMAS CONNOLLY, late Master of the Sloop Dunmore, of the Port of Galway, against whom there are Informations for Scuttling, and Sinking, and Disposing of part of her Cargo.

DESCRIPTION

     THOMAS CONNOLLY is about 5 feet 6 inches, aged about 25 years, slender made, dark featured; wore a blue body coat, with gilt buttons, blue coarse trowsers, black silk handkerchief and a glazed hat.
     Application for said Reward to be made to the Directors of the St. Patrick Insurance Company, Dublin; or to Messrs. Denis and H. Clarke, Galway.
     December 16, 1824

~~~~~~~~~

     A poor man, named William Croghan had just erected a cabin at Ballinserney, which he intended to remove with his family, but on appearing on Thursday morning, he discovered that it was levelled to the earth. This poor fellow had formerly been in the Royal Navy and was discharged at the last peace.

ANTIQUITIES
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
ANCIENT IRELAND MANUSCRIPT FOUND IN THE CASTLE OF LISMORE

     In the year 1816, the Duke of Devonshire, the present noble proprietor of the ancient Castle of Lismore, in the County of Waterford, gave directions, that that venerable edifice should be repaired and restored to its pristine state and splendour. In pursuance of his Grace's command, workmen were employed on the building; and, on taking down a wall that had been built in the place of a door; [can't read line] they discovered an Ancient Manuscript  Book, beautifully written in the Irish Character and Language, on vellum of the largest size. Some parts of the beginning and latter end of the book were entirely decayed. There are also some leaves wanting in different places in the middle; and , in some other places, the mice have eaten away a part of the upper margin, which leaves a few lines defective on some of the pages. The folios of the book were originally numbered with Arabic figures. The last folio, now legible, is marked 293, which would, if the book were perfect, be equal to 473 pages. The number of the pages now remaining are only 260.
     This precious relic of Irish genius contains a variety of Tracts, both curious and interesting.- As it stands at present, it begins with the life of St. Patrick, which is followed by those of St. Columbhill, St. Brigid, St. Sean??, St. Finin, of Clonard, and St. Fionaches of Brigoone. These are followed by an account of the establishment of the festival of All Saints; a treatise on King David; the history of Charlemagne; the history of the Lombards; the history of Al?trisson of Cashal; son of Fiongaine, King of Munster; Adventures and Wars of Callaghan of Cashel, King of Munster; History of Teigne, son of Kian, son of O??oll Olum, King of Munster; Historical Poem on Finin M'Carthy, the M'Carthy reign, the battle of Calonan, Story of Crimthan Cas, King of Connaught; the victory of Drom-dumhghoire; a long Tract on Dispersion and Destruction of the Finian Host, or famous Irish Militia; and some other Tracts of Minor importance.
     The last named Tract is extremely curious, and is most interesting in the Irish Antiquity. It commences at the original folio 201, a sol. 1, now page 185, and continues to folio 239 or present page 260 where it is left imperfect by the loss of the concluding leaves of the book. It is carried on by way of dialogue between various persons; the principal speakers of whom are St. Patrick and Coolte Mac Ronan. The chief subjects treated of are, the unities of the Feal or Irish Militia, in which the great actions of Fionn Mac Cubball (Finn Mac-Coo-all), the Fingal of Mac-Pherian Ossian; Coll Mac-Moran, and his brother, Conan the bold; the Thereafter of the Irish Nisin; Desmond O'Dabhan, and other famous heroes are recited- in the course of this Tract are introduced many popular tales of the Irish, and the origin of many ancient customs is accounted for; and, what is most important to the ancient Irish Topographer, the names of innumerable places remarkable in the History of Ireland, but the scites of which are almost totally unknown to the modern Historian, are given; together with the names by which they are called in latter times.
     There is nothing in the book, that served to ascertain the period at which it was written, but it contains a poem in the M'Carthy rough, which helps to throw some light on the subject and shows that it could not be written earlier than the 15th century. The hero of the poem is Fineen M'Carthy-reagh and his marriage with Cathalin, or Catherine, daughter of Tomas Earl of Desmond, the King's Lieutenant in Ireland, is mentioned more than once in the poem. On an examination of the pedigrees of the M'Carthies, and of the Desmonian Fitzgeralds, contained in Irish manuscripts, and in the records of the Herald's Office, there will be found a record of the marriage of Fineen M'Carthy-reagh, with Catherine, the daughter of Thomas Earl of Desmond, who was unjustly beheaded in the Drogheda, 15th of February, 1467, mentioned in the poem. The book, therefore, could not be written before that period, and there are internal proofs in the writing that lend to show that it must have been written about that time, or very shortly after.
     Through the kindness of Colonel Curry, the Duke of Devonshire's agent in Ireland, who wished to know the contents of the book, and, if possible, to ascertain the period at which it was written, it was lent to Mr. O'Reilly, author of the Irish Dictionary, &c, &c. from whose communication this article is supplied. Whilst the Book was in the custody of Mr. O'Rielly, he made copious extracts from it, by which he has been enabled to make considerable addition to his "Ancient Topography of Ireland," a work upon which he has spent so much time and labour, collecting and arranging materials, and which he expects very soon to lay before the public.

 

     The Lord Chancellor has been pleased to appoint John Shea Lawlor, Esq, a Magistrate for the County of Kerry.

     A number of masons, quarry men and labourers, have been hired in Limerick for the Canal works, now carrying on between Gloucester and Berkley- they left Limerick on Wednesday last.

AIR-GUNS

     Thursday, about twelve o'clock, an air-gun or cane, was discharged at the dining-room window, of the house No. 14, Digges-street, three doors from French-street, Dublin, by which a pane of glass was perforated in the same manner as if by a pistol shot. It appeared to have been charged with a hard paper pellet, which was found in the room, and it was very near hitting a lady, Mrs. Codd, who was sitting at the fire; and from the peculiar force with which it passed through the glass, there can be no doubt of its being capable of inflicting a serious wound on the face, on on any part unprotected by clothes. This cowardly attempt must have been made from a window, as no person was passing at the time it occurred, and the direction of the paper bail was horizontal.- There is here ,and indeed in almost every civilized country, a strict prohibition respecting air-guns or similar contrivances- nothing being more fatally united for secret assassination. Yet air-canes, which are equally dangerous as guns on that principle, are openly sold in our shops! The police have, no doubt, the power of seizing all such prohibited arms, and punishing the possessors and it were well that they directed their attention to the subject.
     The attempt which we have mentioned was probably intended but for slight injury, and not for direct assassination-otherwise a leaden bullet would have been used. But this only proves the danger of their murderous weapons. --Dublin Paper.

 

THE CONNAUGHT JOURNAL
Galway, Monday, December 20, 1824

BOARD AND LODGING

    BOARD and LODGING can be had of Mrs. O'Shaughnessy, Cross-street. Terms will be found Moderate. 
     Galway, Dec. 20, 1824.

MENDICITY ASSOCIATION

     In acknowledging the Subscriptions received for the last month, the Committee of the Mendicity Association cannot but advert with peculiar satisfaction to that of the Weavers working for the Halls of this Town, but they beg to assure their generous supporters, who have thus out of their poverty, "cast in their mile," as well as  to the Inhabitants of the Town in general, that their liberal subscriptions must be given in vain; and notwithstanding all the exertions of the Committee, the Lazy, Idle and dissolute imposter will be seen begging through the streets until they resolve sternly to refuse all relief in the streets or at their doors. As the Committee please themselves to relieve every care of genuine distress, it must be apparent that of the Mendicants they now meet, ninety-nine in a hundred are imposters; and they appeal to the good sense of their fellow townsmen, whether it be not real charity to refuse them.
     Subscriptions already acknowledged   74.16.8
James O'Hara, half year's subscription     2.5.6
Mrs. French, Back-street, ditto     1.0.0
Major Bodkin, Rahoon, ditto     2.5.0
Miss Gardener, 3 months, ditto     1.0.0
Mrs. Gale, Flood street, ditto...1.0.0
James Stephens, ditto     0.11.4 1/2
Patrick Ferrall, ditto     1.2.9
Miss A. Kelly, ditto     0.10.0
M. Sweeny, ditto     0.10.0
James Moffat, ditto     0.10.0
Mrs. Cheevers, Middle-street, ditto     2.0.0
Major Browne, ditto    1.2.0
Thomas Corr, ditto     1.2.9
Timothy Murray, ditto     1.0.0
Peter Traynor, ditto     1.2.9
Patrick Fynn, ditto     0.10.0
David Mitchell, ditto     1.2.9
Doctor Blake, ditto     1.0.0
Very Rev. James Daly, Warden     3.8.3
Edward Killeen, ditto     1.0.0
R.M. St. George, Headford Castle     1.0.0
Wm  Murphy, 3 months, ditto     1.2.0
Richard Adams, 3 months ditto     1.0.0
Doctor Whitley, D.D.     1.2.9
Ladies of the Dominican Convent     1.7.6
Weavers of the town, 2s. 6d. each     5.15.0
Poor box at Mendicity Asylum     0.8.8
James Foster, 3 months     0.15.0
Sundry small subscriptions,      0.15.0
                                   112.2.7

 

TEN POUNDS REWARD

     For the Apprehension of THOMAS CONNOLLY, late Master of the Sloop Dunmore, of the Port of Galway, against whom there are Informations for Scuttling, and sinking and Dispersing of part of her Cargo.

DESCRIPTION

     THOMAS CONNOLLY is about 5 feet 8 inches, age about 35 years, slender made, dark featured; wore a blue body-coat, with gilt buttons, blue coarse trowsers, black silk handkerchief and a glazed hat.
     A publication for said Reward to be made to the Directors of the St. Patrick Insurance Company, Dublin or to Messrs. Denis and H. Clarke, Galway.
     December 16, 1824.

MR. KEARNS'S ACADEMY
Flood-Street, Galway

     AT and EXAMINATION held in Mr. KEARNS'S School, on the 16th, 17th and 18th Instant, the following YOUNG GENTLEMEN distinguished themselves in their respective Classes:

     Homer, 1st Class- Burke (Nicholas), Blake (Pat); 2d, ditto, Moore.
     Testament- Cavanagh, aCoffey, aStanton.
     Livy-Moore.
     Cicero-Cavanagh, O'Hara.
     Juvenal-Moore.
     Horace-Burke (Nicholas), O'Hara.
     Sallust-aLovelock, sen., aCoffey.
     Virgil, 1st Class-Lovelock, sen; 2d ditto, Coffey, aStaunton; 3d. ditto, aM'Namara, sen; aEvans (Terrence), aKearns (Nicholas), aJoyce; 4th ditto, Lee (Francis), aUsher.
     Caesar, 1st Class- M'Namara, sen, aEvans (Terrence), aLee (Redmond); 2d ditto, Kirwan (John), aUsher, aNolan, sen.
     Selecta- Kearns (John), aBraughall, a Kelly (Robert)
     Swain - Nolan, sen, aBraughall, aNevin.
     Syntax- O'Flyn, aMcNamara, jun.
     Hoole's - Nevin, Lovelock, jun.
     Speech - Green.
     Geography - Kearns (John).
     Ancient History - Blake (Pat), aBlake (Francis), aStaunton.
     Writing, 1st Class - Staunton, aKirwan (John), aLee (Redmond); 2d ditto M'Namara, sen, aJoyce, aEvans (Terence); 3d do., Kearns (Nicholas), aKearns (John); 4th do., Nevin, aO'Flyn, aKelly (Robert); 5th ditto, Small, aNolan, sen, aNolan, junior.
    Arithmetic - Blake (Pat), Blake (Francis), Staunton.
     Catechism - Lee (Redmond), Haftery, Kearns (Nicholas).
     Those marked thus (a) cut for Premiums.
     Vacation ends January 9, 1825.
     Galway, December 20, 1824.

 

EDUCATION

    AT a Public Examination held at Mr. Folan's School, Shop-street, on the 17th and 18th inst., the following young Gentlemen received Premiums in their respective Classes, viz.-

GREEK
Homer - Burke, 1mus.
Oemston- ditto, ditto.
Lucian - ditto, ditto.
Testament- Lynch 1mus *, Power
Grammar- Folan 2dus, 1mus.

LATIN
Livy - Burke 1mus.
Juvenal - ditto, ditto.
Horace - Lynch 1mus., Power
Cicero - Lynch 1mus.
Sallust - Power *, Lynch
Virgil- Folan 1mus, 2dus.*, Burke 2dus.
Ovid - Folan 1mus, Burke *, Folan 2dus.
Caesar - O'Donovan 2dus., 1mus, Ireland, Bermingham.
Burrowes - Roche *, Wallace, Dugdale.
Swain - Logan

FRENCH
Telemachus - Walters 2dus.
Fables-Ditto.
Grecian History - Wallace 1mus.
Roman History, 1st Class - Folan, Wallace, Lynch, Power
Ditto, 2d Class - Folan 2dus, O'Donovan 1mus *, 2dus.
Modern History - Logan
Geography - ?, Wallace 2dus.
English Grammar, 1st Class - Folan 2dus* 1mus., Wallace.
Ditto, 2d Class - Logan, O'Donovan 1mus. 2dus.
Catechism - O'Donovan 1mus, Lynch 2dus, Carr
Reading, 1st Class - Carr *, M'Donnell.
Ditto, 2nd Class - Lynch, Burke, Marshall.
Spelling - Burke, Medley, Wallace, Walsh.
Arithmetic - Burke, Wallace, Bermingham.
Writing - Dugdale, Folan, Logan.

Those marked thus (*) cut for Premiums.
     Mr. FOLAN returns his sincere thanks to those Gentlemen who have hitherto favoured his Establishment. He flatters himself from his unwearied attention to the ???drals and advancement of his Pupils in their respective studies, that he will give general satisfaction, and gain a liberal share of public patronage, which it will be his unremitted and peculiar study to merit.
     The Gentlemen Examiners expressed themselves to be highly pleased with the very correct and prompt answering of the Boys. 
     Vacation ends January 10th, 1825.
     December 20, 1824

 

 

THE CONNAUGHT JOURNAL
Galway, Thursday, December 23, 1824

MARRIAGES

      A few days since, in Dublin, James Martin, Esq., eldest son of Robert Martin of Ross, Esq., in the Co. Galway, to Miss Higginbotham, only daughter of ________ Higginbotham, Esq. in the City of Dublin.
     On the 14th instant, by Special License, Patrick Hanly, Esq., of Nelson-street, in the City of Dublin, to Hannah, eldest daughter of the late Doctor Donnelly, of Athlone and niece to Rere-Admiral Donnelly.

DEATHS

     At his seat, Castle-Lambert, on Saturday last, M. Lambert, Esq., a Gentleman the whole tenor of whose life and conduct endears him to his highly remarkable Friends, and has rendered his death a subject of deep regret.
     On the evening of Wednesday lat, in Market-street, at an advanced age, Miss B. Fitzgerald- a Lady of extensive and unostentatious charity.
     In Dublin, Wm. Pitt Kennedy, Esq., Barrister at law.
     At Killorglin, County Kerry, aged 107, Mrs. Mary Louny.
     Near Antrim, aged 84, highly respected and beloved, the Rev. George Macartney, L.L.D., Vicar of Antrim.
     Mr. Thomas Norton, of Exchequer-street, Dublin.
     On the 9th instant, in London, deeply regretted by her family, friends and acquaintance, Miss Catherine Ball, second daughter of B. Ball, Esq., of Merrion-square, Dublin.
     At Stephen's-green, Dublin, Mrs. Burgess, relict of the late William Burgess, Esq., of Belfast.
     In Francis-street, Dublin, at an advanced age, Mr. Bernard Murray, much regretted by a numerous circle of friends.
     On the 21st ult, at the Irish College in Lisbon, where he had lately gone in the hopes of obtaining a restoration of his health, the Rev. Andrew Eustis, ode of the Roman Catholic curates of St. Mary's Parish Dublin. This amiable and excellent Ecclesiatic had scarcely attained his 33rd year. An unwearied zeal in the labours of his sacred calling led him to sacrifice health to duty. With an eloquence chaste, terse and persuasive, he was the constant and successful advocate of the numerous Roman Catholic institutions founded in the City of Dublin for the Relief of the Widow and the Orphans.

TO THE EDITOR
OF THE CONNAUGHT JOURNAL

     SIR- Curiosity induced me to ride westward of this Town some twelve days since, as well to enjoy the picturesque scenery which presents itself between this and Clifden, even in the rudest season of the year, as to inform myself, by personal observation, of the correctness of those reports which are in circulation, respecting the growing prosperity of what may be called a new Colony. It was rather unfortunate the Proprietor was absent from what I could learn, in regard to the pleasure he at all times evinces to afford every information that may be required, of in this power to give, to an enquiring stranger. But with respect to the accommodations which is to be found there, and at which is called the Half-way House, I had no reason to complain, and as I was totally unacquainted, it cost me less time to ascertain that which I wanted to learn. Candour calls on me to say, I was not disappointed. Certainly, this part of the Country affords numerous local advantages, and I shall not be surprised, nay, I am confident, that ere many years it will become a place of considerable commerce. What has kept it so long in the background, save its being in the background- and the most abominable state of the road leading to it, after you pass Oughterard, I am yet to learn- the latter, however, most decidedly and most materially operates against it, for it is literally impossible that any vehicle can pass over it, carrying five hundred weight. How, then, are goods to be conveyed there for sale from the Capital of the County, forty miles distant? The Shopkeepers told me, most commonly by boat, which may at this season of the year arrive forty days after shipment; for myself I thank my stars, I returned safe, and that when I had to alight (which was pretty frequent), I had on my seven-leagued boots. Among other matters, I heard from poor people passing along the road, that three Gentlemen of the Grand Jury frequently passed, who, from constant habit, thought nothing of it, and that one of them, forsooth, was a Contractor to keep them in repair, and drew large sums annually for that purpose from the County. I observed, too, a new line of road running direct through the Country on a flat. Ho, ho, said I, this will be an improvement- this surely is some doings of the Nimmonians? No, faith, was I answered, that was more of the yarn, for the devil's a halfperth could be seen of what them lads intended to do, for they made it a prudent rule, in all their great and little undertakings, never to finish any thing they begun. No, the County paid the amount of that contract to one of the three great men long ago; and although I perceived a mere trifle would make a portion of same comfortable for many miles, and on the worst part of the road too - the stone being ready cut for bridges- nevertheless, there  is no sign of an intention to fulfill the contract, pro tante. The Gentleman I now advert to, people say, is canvassing the representation of that County; but, before he comes out again to solicit suffrages, I would, by all means, recommend him to stop the slough at his own door.
     With every hope and anxiety, Mr. Editor, for the extention and welfare of your truly independent and liberal columns, I am yours, 
              A LEINSTER MAN.

SHOCKING IMMORALITY

     We record in our Journal of the 12th alt, the committal to our county gaol, by Richard Norman, Esq., of Thomas Watts (late servant to Mr. Hawley, of Guadaloupe Lodge near Melton Mawbray) for felony. He was charged on the oath of Anne Bussey, late also a servant of Mr. Hawley, with having entered her bedroom about three o'clock in the morning of the 29th October last, and attempting her life by cutting her throat with a knife; she further stated, that immediately after perpetrating the act he ran away; when she went to her master's room and informed him of this circumstance, he proceeded to the man's chamber and found him apparently asleep, and a fellow servant in a bed adjoining. Upon the wound being examined by a surgeon, he pronounced that her life was not in danger. The woman bearing a very indifferent character, great trouble was taken by the worthy Magistrate in order to elucidate the truth, and the prisoner was remanded several times; but as she strictly adhered to her first statement, upon oath, there was no other alternative, and he was accordingly committed to trial at the ensuing Assizes. Ever since his confinement the girl has been much depressed in her mind, and stung, it is supposed, with remorse of conscience, in having placed the life of a fellow-servant in such imminent danger, she confessed on Friday last to the parish officers of Little Dalby, that she had taken a false oath, and that the whole was a fabrication of her own; that she had committed the act with her own hand out of revenge, she being pregnant by the prisoner, who refused to marry her. This abandoned woman the same day actually went over to Melton to the same Magistrate, for the express purpose (if it could be done) of swearing to the truth of such confession.  It is understood that the poor fellow will be obliged to remain immured in prison until the next general gaol delivery.-- Leicester Journal.

THE ARMY

     We can state with certainty that Gen. Darling has been appointed to the Government of New South Wales; and that Major Goulbourn has been removed from the office of Secretary to the German Government.-- Morning Chronicle.

     MAJOR-GENERAL JOHN ROWLEY - The late Major-General John Rowley entered the service on the 28th of June, 1786, as second Lieutenant in the Royal Artillery, and was appointed on the 23d of August, 1787, second Lieutenant in the corps of Royal Engineers. He was advanced on the 2d of May, 1792, to Lieutenancy in the same corps, and was promoted to a company on the 18th of June, 1796, and to a Lieutenant-Colonecy, on the 1st of July, 1806. He was appointed on the 4th of June, 1814, Brevet-Colonel, was promoted, on the 20th December, 1814, to a Colonecy, and on the 19th of July, 1821, was raised to the rank of Major-General.

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     The Pawnbrokers of the metropolis are required to send in returns to Government of the name and address of such individuals as should redeem from pledge, any description of fire arms. They are likewise ordered to send in a list of the fire arms they have actually in their possession.

THE CONNAUGHT JOURNAL
Galway, Monday, December 27, 1824

PROVINCIAL INTELLIGENCE

     LIMERICK, DEC. 24 - The haggard of a farmer named William Hayes, residing at Ballyscanlan, barony of Upper Connelloe, in this County, was set fire to on Monday night by some malicious incendiaries, and all the hay and oats contained therein consumed. The perpetrators have not been discovered, although the Police made every search.

     Robbery of Arms- Queen's Co.- On Friday night, seven or eight men armed, with their faces blackened broke into the house of M.R. Burnet, of Fishertown, by the rere, and forced the servants into the front parlour where Mr. and Mrs. Burnet were, in which they shut them all up, and proceeded upstairs to his bed chamber, where they took one musket, two cases of pistols, two swords, and a powder horn; and after reaching another room where his grandson lay asleep, without waking him they departed, without suffering any violence, demanding, or taking of any other article whatsoever. It is much to be regretted that such an outrage should commence in this hitherto peaceable County.

     On Wednesday last, about two o'clock in the afternoon, whilst a Gentleman was receiving rents in the house of Mr. D. Brody, of Mount-Shannon, in the County of Galway, a number of people entered the room where the Gentleman was sitting, with the apparent intention of speaking business when one of the party contrived to take away a valuable musket the property of the owner of the house. Nothing more strongly proving the existence of a regular combination amongst the Peasantry that this transaction; the numerous family of Mr. Brody being all in the house, some of whom must have detected the robber, had he not been carefully sheltered from observation by his associates.

 

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