|AMERICA—EMIGRATION. THE AMERICAN GOVERNMENT AND THE IRISH
EMIGRANTS. MORTALITY ON BOARD EMIGRANT SHIPS.
(From the New York Correspondent of the Freeman.)
| New York, May 30, 1847.—The great social phenomenon of
the day is emigration ; and it is developing itself with a rapidity and a power
which must soon materially affect and derange all those institutions and laws
which some within its influence ; at least here, where its disturbing force is,
from obvious causes, much greater felt than in the old world. . . . At
Boston, Baltimore, in a word, at every sea-port to which there is any influx of
emigration, the public authorities have been obliged to resort to extraordinary
means to meet the necessities of the great human movement from the old world to
the new ; and everywhere, I think it may be said with truth, that such
arrangements are made in a liberal and benevolent spirit.
etc.—In the way of caution I have little to add to my former letter. A good
ship, cleanliness, and enough of wholesome food will land the emigrant on our
shores so fit and hearty as can be expected after a sea voyage.
| As an invariable rule ships of the second class are to be
eschewed. A first class ship, or a packet, makes all the difference in the world
in favour of the emigrant. The other day the American liner, Constitution,
brought here 580 passengers, the greatest number ever taken by a single ship.
There was but one death (of a child) on the passage, and very few of the
passengers were sick, thanks to the order and regularity on board, but still
more to the sound timbers, lofty between decks, and every way excellent steerage
accomodations of this noble vessel. Almost every day the liners deliver large
numbers of passengers under circumstances as fortunate.
| How is it with the ancient ships, especially within those
old weather beaten vessels, ill-regulated, ill-provided, ill-ventilated, from
British ports? I cut a few paragraphs at random from the newspapers of to-day
and Saturday, which may answer the question :—
| “On Saturday (at Boston), the British ship Omega, from
Liverpool, brought 387. She started with 398, but eleven died on the
passage. Twenty were so sick on her arrival that they could not get on deck.
Forty more in a little better condition, were enabled by assistance to leave the
confined and fever-generating atmosphere of the steerage.”
| But the Omega was very far from being a very bad case.
Many of the second class British ships lost from eight to ten, or twelve, per
cent. on the passage, say 25 out of 200. Here is a dreadful case—also a
British vessel if I mistake not—become almost a plague ship :—
| “The other day the ship John L. Shepherd arrived at
Boston with a crowded cargo of starving and diseased human sufferers, having
lost on her passage fifty of her passengers and nine of her crew
by the putrid ship fever. One poor fellow fell and expired whilst leaving the
ship to enter the alms-house waggon, whilst near the after-hatch lay another
corpse, and around it were squatting emaciated and squalid beings—to all
appearance merely biding their time—their staring but leaden eyes fixed
in stolid vacuity upon the deck. Thirty-five of these wretched persons were said
to have been at once admitted to the alms-house.”
| Again, by taking a liner or first-class ship, you can
always be sure of being landed at the port agreed on.—They are always owned by
responsible parties. With other vessels it is different. Here is an instance :—
| “DISTURBANCE IN BOSTON
HARBOUR.—The British brig Mary, Capt. Wyman, from Cork,
arrived at this port 17th inst., with forty-six steerage passengers. The city
authorities would not suffer them to be landed, owing to their destitute
condition, unless the master gave bonds that they should not become a burden to
the city. This he was unable or unwilling to do, and came to the conclusion that
he must take them to Halifax, for which port he accordingly cleared on Saturday.”
| One more word—although it is so trite as to be tedious
as a thrice-told tale. Once landed here, let not the emigrant linger in the
cities. Everything depends on his pushing into the country somewhere—his
health, his morals, his life. If the almost tropical heats of our American
summers catch him in the hot and crowded cities, they will shrivel him up.
Fortunately this season there has been thus far an unusual demand for
agricultural labour, which has taken off large drafts of the emigrants. The
public works of the state of Illinois have been resumed, and the state
commissioners are in town ready to take labourers to the spot (the state
advancing the money for their passage), and give them from 75 cents to a dollar
a day (from three to four shillings). The Erie railroad has taken, or will take,
three thousand labourers at the same rate. Yet what are all these among so many?
| In this city, I suppose we will not have any severe
suffering —thanks to the ample powers with which our commissioners of
emigration are invested. How it will be in other cities, when the demand for
farm labour will have been over, and all temporary means of relief will have
been exhausted, one hardly ventures to think.
| This only is plain—that every emigrant who has the means
should fly straight into the country when he lands ; let him not consider his
voyage ended till he gets there. If he has not the means, he must go—in this
city, by the help of our commissioners, elsewhere, by the public help if he can
get it ; if not, let him beg or work his way. But into the country he must go.
The city is for him the mere ante-room to misery, vice, and death.
| BOROUGH OF KINSALE.—We
understand that Thomas Dixon, Esq., J.P., of Newtown Park, intends to offer
himself as a candidate for the borough of Kinsale, at the ensuing election. Mr.
Dixon's political tendencies are Liberal. He is an opponent to the Church
Establishment, and we believe would not be an opponent to the re-adjustment of
the Union between England and Ireland on a Federal basis.—Freeman.
| MAYO.—Mr. Dillon Browne will
leave London for the west of Ireland this night, or to-morrow morning, with the
view of meeting his constituents, and rendering an account of his parliamentary
stewardship previous to the general election. Mr. G. H. Moore, who recently
contested the representation with Mr. Joseph M. M'Connell, has avowed his
determination of again seeking the suffrages of the Mayo electors.—Freeman
DISTILLATION FROM SUGAR.
| Messrs. Roe have concluded their Sugar operations for the
season, and the result is, that they are quite confirmed in the opinion that
more than 10 1/3; Gallons of proof Spirits cannot be obtained from the ordinary
run of Sugar, where as the Excise experiments showed fully one Gallon more, say
11 1/2; Gallons. They tried Honduras, Jamaic, and Madras Sugars, but found very
little difference in the extract, and none whatever in quality.
| The Spirit we have seen, and it is remarkably fine. —Mercantile
|IMPORT OF PROVISIONS.
|THE following arrivals have been
entered in the Custom House since our last publication :—per Ajax Steamer from
London, 209 bags biscuit ; Timandra from Cavilla, 2250 quarters Indian Corn ;
Kate from Galatz, 1300 quarters Indian Corn ; Marchioness of Bute, 1300 quarters
Indian Corn ; Tito from Salonica, 1500 quarters Indian Corn ; Minerva Steamer
from Liverpool, 355 bags Rice, 10 packages Flour ; Lima from New Orleans for
Society of Friends' Poor Relief Committee, 361 barrels Flour, 598 barrels Indian
Corn Meal, 16 barrels Beans, 6 barrels Pork ; per do. for American Consul, 4818
sacks Indian Corn, 42 sacks Wheat, 25 barrels Flour, 42 barrels Corn Meal, 2
barrels Beans, 2 barrels Beef, 26 sacks Peas ; Ballinacurra Lass from Malta, 890
quarters Indian Corn ; Lucinda Jane from Liverpool, 3500 bushels Indian Corn.
|EXPORT OF PROVISIONS.
|SINCE our last :—per Ajax steamer for London, 202
firkins Butter, 73 bales Bacon, 12 casks Hams, 254 sacks Wheat ; 28 tierces
Provisions, 50 barrels Indian Meal, 656 sheep, 33 calves, 300 boxes eggs, 50
head cattle, 90 boxes salmon ; Elizabeth for Port Talbot, 120 barrels oats ; St.
Michael, for Tralee, 300 barrels Indian Corn ; Nancy Browne for Newport, 76 head
cattle, Wanderer for New Passage, 230 sheep ; William for Newport, 340 sheep ;
Brothers for Newport, 100 head cattle, 60 sheep ; Shannon, for New Passage, 240
sheep, 80 head cattle ; Jane and Mary Anne, for Newport, 110 sheep, 60 head
cattle ; Nonpareil for Newport, 300 sheep.
| RELIEF FROM VAN
private letter from Hobart Town, Van Diemen's Land, announces that the splendid
subscription of £5,000 has been made in that Colony for the Relief of the
Distressed Irish, and that, in addition, a vessel has been chartered with a
cargo of wheat for the same benevolent object.
| Letters received in town to-day announce the death at
Bath, on the 12 inst., of Mr. George Ogle Moore, who some months since retired
from the office of Registrar of Deeds, in which he was succeeded by Mr. Morgan
O'Connell, one of the younger sons of the late Mr. Daniel O'Connell. Mr. Moore
formerly represented the city of Dublin in the Imperial Parliament, and,
although returned on the high church and old corporate interest, was highly
respected by men of all parties. By his death a large pension reverts to the
Crown, and, I believe, a considerable increase to the salary of Mr. Morgan
O'Connell is a consequence of the melancholy event. —Times Correspondent.
| James Whiteside, Esq., Q.C., is on a visit with his
brother, the Rev. J. Whiteside, of Ripon.
| UNPRECEDENTED QUICK
PASSAGE TO AMERICA.— The barque
Barbara, R. C. Presse, Esq., of Galway, owner, of and from Galway, arrived at
Halifax, on the 19th day of May, after a passage of thirteen days, landed all
her passengers, in good health, 265 in number. Most of them got immediate
| HARVEST PROSPECTS.—Our
reporter has been travelling through the counties of Clare and Limerick. In the
latter county vegetation has assumed a most refreshing appearance. The English
barley and several fields wheat are in full ear, a most extensive tract of land
is laid under potatoes, which are promising plenty, and the whole aspect of
nature is assuming a promising relief to the destitute poor.—Clare Journal.
| Whole meal is reduced £1 per ton, and oatmeal £2 per
ton, in price.
|A CORRESPONDENT says :—“Fever is frightful here ;
we have lost our second Coadjutor, the Rev. Mr. Reardon—the best of men. Our
Relief Committee is now reduced to Dr. Greaves and Mr. Michael O'Brien. The Rev.
Mr. O'Brien is recovering from a bad fever, and our excellent Secretary, the
Rev. Henry Disney lies dangerously ill—God only knows, where this will all
| The Christian Brothers have recieved through the
charitable influence of the Rev. P. Cooper of Dublin, £20, the offering of a
benevolent lady towards the relief of the destitute children of their schools,
for which they offer their grateful acknowledgement.
THE TENANT RIGHT QUESTION.
| The muster of Irish members was, as usual, very scant,
and, on looking over the subjoined list, you will find that many of those who
ought to have supported the hnourable member for Rochdale absented themselves,
and shrunk from lending their aid towards securing the enactment of one of the
few practical Irish measures introduced this session. The O'Conor Don and Sir
William Sommerville displayed somewhat better taste than Mr. Monaghan. Neither
the Under Secretary for the Home Department nor the junior Lord of the Treasury
could screw up their courage to join the ministerial opposition—in all
probability, having before their eyes the fear of landlord oppressed
constituencies at the ensuing general election.
| IRISH MEMBERS FOR
THE FIRST READING.—Sir H.
W. Barron, Martin J. Blake, J. J. Bodkin, John Boyd, Viscount Castlereagh, John
Collett, M. E. Corbally, Cecil Lawless, Alexander M'Carthy, Sir D. Norreys, J.
O'Brien, Timothy O'Brien, M. J. O'Connell. Tellers.—W. S. Crawford, E. B.
| AGAINST THE SECOND
READING.—W. Bunbury, T. J. Burke, Hon. H. A. Cole, H.
Corry, Sir R. Ferguson, Edward Grogan, Lord C. Hamilton, A. Lefroy, J. H.
Monaghan, D. R. Ross, F. Shaw, Sir W. Verner, John Young, Hon. W. Browne. —Freeman Correspondent.
| ORDINATION OF MR.
NEWMAN.—Mr. Newman was ordained subdeacon and deacon at
Rome in Whitsunweek, and on Trinity Sunday received the priesthood at the hands
of Cardinal Fransone in the church of the Propaganda.
| There are six livings vacant in the Diocese of Ossory
(whose Bishop is on the Continent), some at influential localities such as
Donoughmore, Ross, and Kilbenny, and no one as yet nominated to fill them,
though some have been months vacant ; and the localities at these times, of
course, suffering from the want of the head and purse of a resident clergyman.
It is reported, but we believe untruly, that the Bishop (O'Brien) would be happy
to resign his mitre and return as a Fellow to alma mater T.C.D.
| We daily receive pleasing accounts of the flourishing
growth of the Potato from the different localities about this city.—Ibid.