Published in Cavan, county Cavan
March 3, 1848
CAVAN SPRING ASSIZES, 1848
CROWN COURT-- Saturday, February 26.
Baron PENNEFATHER, who arrived from Longford at 8 o'clock this morning, took his seat on the Bench, in the Crown Court, at about 10 o'clock, when the Grand Jury were re-sworn....
Several prisoners were arraigned, all of whom pleaded not guilty, save Charles CAFFREY, who with his two brothers were charged with the abduction of Mary DONOHOE. The case was subsequently tried.
The following were sworn on the petty jury:--Henry MAXWELL (foreman), Richard CLARKE, Samuel MARTIN, Anthony GILROY, John MOORE, Philip SMITH, James BLACK, Thomas BROWN, John DOWNEY, Joseph POGUE, William DANCY, and Isaac PRATT.
HOUSE-BREAKING AND ROBBERY. Felix MAGUIRE, a deplorable looking boy, was placed at the bar, charged with breaking into the house of Anne and John MAGUIRE; lives at Mulnavarry, in this county; remembers the night of the 20th of January, when the robbery was committed; it was committed before six in the morning; witness and her husband were in bed at the time; they slept in a room off the kitchen; she was awakened by hearing hens cackling; witness got out of bed, and saw prisoner in the kitchen, she knew him before; he took the bolt out of the kitchen; witness then saw a window out in another room, not the kitchen, by which the prisoner had entered; there were three sacks of corn in the house when they went to bed, one of them placed against the window which had been removed; no one could get in at the window but by removing the sack; when witness examined, she found the corn gone; some if it scattered outside the house; particularly under the window.
To a Juror--Prisoner is her husband's nephew; witness is sure prisoner was not in the house when she went to bed.
John MAGUIRE examined--Prisoner is his brother's son and lives about 60 perches from his house; witness was started by his wife on the night in question; got up immediately and took a pitchfork; did not see prisoner in the house at the time; went to his house and asked for him, was told that prisoner was after going to bed.
To a Juror--I owed prisoner no wages; he never asked "charity" of me; his father and mother are dead, but he has two brothers; they have four acres of land; I had prisoner employed sometimes, but I gave him what I bargained for, 6d. a-day; I owe him nothing to the best of my knowledge.
The prisoner here interrupted the examination, and stated that he had worked for the witness, when he (witness) was not able to work for himself, for which he received no payment.
Examination resumed--Prisoner did work for me when we had made no bargain.
To Mr. BROOKE--I though latterly he was not "wise" and that's what makes me give him some grains of allowance.
A Voice--Yes, by prosecuting him at the assizes.
His Lordship briefly addressed the jury, when they consulted together for a few minutes, and brought in a verdict of "Guilty of larceny, but not of perjury.
The prisoner was transported for seven years. The severity of the sentence excited much surprise.
Charles CAFFREY, John CAFFREY, and Peter CAFFREY, were indicted for the abduction of Mary DONOHOE, on the night of the 4th inst. Mary DONOHOE (a country looking girl, very unlike Venus) sworn-- I know the three prisoners, and remember the night the offence complained of was committed; the prisoner Charles sent me a message on that night to go to the house of John CAFFREY, of Corglass, to see my cousin, for she was there waiting for me; I went, with the consent of my father, and when I arrived, prisoners locked the door to keep me in; they asked me to marry Charles; I was not willing; the prisoner Peter told the others to pitch me out; I was in the house six hours; the police came at last, broke in the door, and took me out; when I went first, I asked for my cousin, the prisoners did not offer me violence, nor lay an immodest hand upon me; I was offered eating and drinking, but would not accept any.
The jury returned a verdict of--Not guilty.
Philip M'CARTIN was next indicted for a riot at Muckla, on the 19th October , and assaulting Edward M'DERMOTT, a bailiff.
Edward M'DERMOTT sworn --Is a bailiff of the Manor Court of Gwyllyn Brooke; had three decrees against Peter CORRY; seized under one, a variety of articles, oats, hay, turf &c; this was on the 7th of October; left Thomas COSGRAVE in charge; was to have had the sale on the 11th; on the Sunday night previous, about nine o'clock, he (witness) went to CORRY's house; CORRY and wife were beating COSGRAVE; witness interefered to prevent them; they then went into the house and sat down at the fire; shortly afterwards the prisoner and another man entered; prisoner had a gun, the other a pitchfork; they at once attacked witness, and but for CORRY would have killed him; witness begged the favour of the court for the prisoner, and hoped the decrees would be settled.
To Mr. JOHNSTON--Thinks he had a right to go to CORRY's house at the hour named; at all events he went; the hour was not unusual, for there was not one in the whole country in bed at the time.
A Voice--That's a wide oath (laughter).
Mr. JOHNSTON here read part of the act which prevents the seizure of goods between sunset and sunrise.
His Lordship--The question arises, whether he made a new seizure then under another decree, or went to look after what he had already seized? If the latter he had a perfect right to go.
The jury returned a verdict of acquittal.
RIOT AND ASSAULT.
James BRADY, James REILLY, Terence DOLAN, Terence DOLAN, jun., Felix BRADY, Philip HAYES and three others, were charged with a riot and assault on Edw. M'CORRY.
In the absence of a principal witness, the prisoners were allowed to stand out until next assizes on their own recognizance.
BURGLARY AND ROBBERY.
John REILLY, Thomas BRADY, John THORNTON, and John CLARKE, were next placed on the dock, charged with breaking into the house of John REILLY, of Kilduff, at eleven o'clock on the night of the 30th of April last, robbing him of a gun, a web of frieze, and other articles.
Mr. KNIPE (attorney for the prisoners), objected to some of the jurors already sworn. The names were again called out and the following jury empannelled:--Henry MAXWELL (foreman), Richard CLARKE, Samuel MARTIN, Anthony GILROY, Philip SMITH, Thos. BROWN, BRADY, John BRADY, jun., and James ETHERTON.
Mary REILLY examined by Mr. BROOKE--I am sister of John REILLY; I remember the night of the 30th of April; it was on that night my brother's house was robbed; I was not in bed at the time the men came, but my brother was; I consider it might be near two o'clock; it was two hours after night-fall; some persons came to the door, and Patt BRADY asked for a coal for his pipe, and to open the door; I refused to open the door, but put a coal under the heel of it; they then threatened to burn the house, and at last smashed in the door; four men entered, and one stood outside; I know the prisoners, they were there; Richard CLARKE came in; he had a handkerchief tied round his head; I did not not mind the others so well as him.
To the Court--I had a better opportunity of knowing CLARKE; the other three that entered were strangers to me; I know their names.
To Mr. BROOKE--They took away a web of frieze, some fine linen, the making of a home-made blanket, a gun, and some more things; I saw Tom BRADY and John THORNTON, two of the prisoners, outside; CLARKE pushed me up before him into the room; I had a candle lighting when they came; I then lit another; the men that were inside asked when going out where they would get a sheaf of straw to burn the house; I followed them; they told me not to make as much noise about that as about the stirk (sic) which had been stolen some time before.
Cross-examined by Mr. JOHNSTON--These men were neighbours; I knew them before; the night was fine, and the stars were glittering; I had two candles lit when they came in; I lit them that I might know the prisoners the better.
To the Court--There were three in the house; Richard CLARKE was one, the others were strangers.
Mr. JOHNSTON--Did you go to a magistrate immediately after the offence to swear informations?
Mr. JOHNSTON--Answer my question, ma'am; you heard it distinctly.
Witness--They left me nothing for my feet, and I took to my bed for four months. I had nothing to put on me; they took all.
Mr. JOHNSTON--I find you swore your informations in November, six months after the robbery; you heard of nothing in the interval that would supply you?
Witness--They left me little.
Mr. JOHNSTON--Come, that answer won't do.
Witness--I don't know what you mean.
Mr. JOHNSTON--Did you ever hear of a reward?
Witness--Oh! a reward!
Mr. JOHNSTON--You're surprised, I suppose?
Witness--Well, sir, indeed I didn't get the like.
Mr. JOHNSTON--You didn't, for the men are not yet convicted.
Witness--Indeed, I didn't get anything; it wasn't offered me.
Mr. JOHNSTON--No; if it were, you would have taken it.
To Mr. JOHNSTON--I know police-sergeant MORRISON at Ballyhaise; I didn't ask money of any policeman, or any other--I swear that.
A sack was here handed up, which witness identified as being stolen on the night in question. The sack had four patches; three of different shades of blue, and one of a coulour similar to the sack itself.
A Juror--There are more blue patches than one?
Witness--I didn't mind them.
Mr. Johnston--Why there are three blue patches on it, ma'am?
Witness( looking at the patches for a few moments)--Ah! two of them are brown, sir, (laughter).
Mr. JOHNSTON--You're a clever woman!
To a Juror--None but myself and my brother were in the house; I didn't tell my brother next day who they were, nor too soon; I told him next day I knew some of them; I did not report the matter to the police; they stripped me; they didn't leave me a stitch.
Mr. JOHNSTON--Did they take all your clothes?
Witness--They left me nothing for my feet.
John REILLY sworn--I live at Kilduff; I mind the night of the robbery.
What time of the night was the robbery perpetrated?
I don't know. sir; I hadn't a watch or a clock.
Do you think was it nine o'clock?
It was about that time, sir.
His Lordship--Upon our oath are you able to speak up?
His Lordship--If you do not, I will send you to jail.
Witness then related how the robbery was committed. Four men entered, and John RELLY was one of the four. He did not know any but REILLY.
To Mr. JOHNSTON--John REILLY ws a neighbour of mine; CLARKE and the others are also neighbours; I never saw REILLY before, to my knowledge; I did not know CLARKE; I wouldn't swear CLARKE was inside too.
Did you ask your sister next day if she knew them?
I did; but she didn't say much about them.
To a Juror--I knew CLARKE for twenty years before the robbery.
A Juror--Did you see the men that entered?
Did you know them?
Ogh! I was put through other.
Mr. JOHNSTON--When your sister said she knew some of the men, why didn't you go and give informations, as an honest man, if you are one?
Witness--I was afeard they'd burn my house.
Did you go to the jail, and ask any one to point out John REILLY?
I saw him at the jail.
Mr. JOHNSTON--Answer my question, sir?
Witness--I asked the turnkey to show him.
Mr. JOHNSTON--Did you, or did you not ask the turnkey, "are you sure that is John REILLY?"
The Court--Answer, sir.
Witness--I did not.
Mr. JOHNSTON--How soon after seeing REILLY in the jail did you swear your informations.
I can't say.
Will you swear it was not four months?
His Lordship--Did you know John REILLY before the turnkey pointed him out?
Witness--I knew him when he was brought out.
A Juror--Was John REILLY present when you asked the turnkey to point him out?
Witness--He was (laughter).
A Juror--What took you to the jail?
Witness--I want to make myself sure of him.
Did you know his name before?
I didn't (laughter).
Another juror--Didn't you ask for John REILLY?
Witness--I did (laughter).
Juror--I thought you went to learn his name?
Witness--REILLY is the man that robbed me anyway.
Juror--Right or wrong?
Witness--Aye, right or wrong(laughter).
James CONNOLLY (a little boy) sworn--He stated that he had been sent of a message by Mary REILLY (as he called his mistress), to Jemmy BRADY's; that instead of going there direct, he went into a wake-house, where he stopped some time, and from that to Jemmy BRADY's; when in BRADY's the prisoners came in; they had not been at the wake-house; upon returning to Mary REILLY's he saw the house robbed; he couldn't tell the time, as he had neither a watch nor a clock, "but it might be near three in the morning. About a week after, Mary REILLY asked him whom he had seen at the wake? he told her; and she said nothing then about the robbers. Witness knew the sack by a blue piece; there were only two blue pieces on it then.
Mr. BROOKE, pointing out a conspicuous blue patch--Was that on it then?
Patt MULVANY (a big boy) called--He professed to identify the sack by the uncoloured patch, but couldn't tell whether the blue patches were on it the night of the robbery, but supposed they must have been.
Thomas RYAN, a constable, proved to taking the sack from the house of one of the prisoners, and that it had not left his possession until brought into court.
Mr. JOHNSTON then rose and addressed the jury for defence. He compared the evidence, and exhibited its manifest discrepancies; he also stated that the manner in which that evidence was given, as well as the matter, should be taken into account, and appealed to the jury if testimony of the witnesses had not to be extorted from them. He said he would produce the turnkey of the gaol to prove that the witness, REILLY, did not know his victim, although within two yards of him. After a lengthened address he concluded by calling
Seargeant MORRISON--I am a police constable in Ballyhaise; about a fortnight after the robbery the witness, REILLY, came to me and stated that he knew none of the party who had robbed him; I asked him some questions, and he wished to get a search-warrant to search about the country for his goods; he told a magistrate so.
To Mr. BROOKE--He said he would not know them if he heard their names.
George REILLY--turnkey, sworn--I saw John REILLY but once; he came to me, and asked to see the prisoner, REILLY; I brought the prison and another; witness then asked which was John REILLY; I gave him no information, but turned him out.
To Mr. BROOKE--He asked which was John REILLY, when I brought the men to him; I am sure of that. (The conduct and manner in which the turnkey gave his evidence on this occasion are highly commendalble.)
Several witnesses were called who gave the prisoners good characters.
The jury retired for a time, but soon returned with a verdict of "No guilty."
Mr. DOHERTY, on behalf of the crown, made an application to the court not to have the bill respecting the Poor-law Collectors of the Cavan union sent up to the Grand Jury before Monday evening or Tuesday, as the principal witness had the fever some short time ago, and was not, as yet, perfectly restored.
The Court complied.
Mary REILLY was then arraigned, and pleaded guilty to the charge of stealing a piece of calico, value 5s., out of the shop of Mr. James PARKER of this town. Sentence--three months hard labour.
Mary SHERIDAN pleaded guilty to the charge of having stolen a cotton gown from Ellen LYNCH; she stated that distress was the cause. Sentence--Three months' imprisonment.
John M'GINNELL was next indicted for having in his possession three loaves, value 2 d each, and twenty-three cakes, value 1 d each, which had been stolen from Mr. John M'GUINNESS of this town.
John M'GUINNESS sworn--I am a baker, living in this town; I remember the morning of the 3rd of January; before going to bed on the preceding night I secured the house and shop; when I got up in the morning I observed the door open, and found that I had been robbed of a quantity of bread, sugar, a keg of spirits and some butter; there were three large shelves full of bread taken, about what would fill a sack; I did not see any of these goods after until the 8th of January, when I saw three loaves and twenty-three cakes in the prisoner's; on entering, the sergeant had a box on the floor, and the things in it. I can swear to the bread.
Court--How can you swear to the bread?
Witness--I was at the baking of it myself, and could not be mistaken. We did not recover all that had been stolen.
To Mr. BROOKE--I packed the bread on Sunday night myself on the shelves. I am sure the bread was mine.
Sergeant M'CURDY examined--I went to look for the stolen good to prisoner's house; found some of them under a bed; prisoner ws not there at the time, but he came in soon after; I asked him how he got these things; he said he bought them from a boy named DONOHOE, who lodged with him.
Prisoner interrupting--DONOHOE did not lodge with me; I told you where he was, sergeant.
Witness--DONOHOE has a very bad character.
Prisoner--I have proof I bought them, but my witnesses are not here.
His lordship asked Mr. GALLOGHLEY, the jailer, what was the character of the prisoner.
Mr. GALLOGLEY stated that the prisoner's character was bad, and that he had been in prison a number of times. The jury returned a verdict of "Guilty." His Lordship sentenced the prisoner to ten years transportation.
After sentence had been passed, the prisoner addressed the Court-- My Lord, allow me to say a few words before I go. Mr. GALLOGLY has a spite against me, on account of a boy who broke away from the jail. He said he'd transport me if ever I came before him.
His Lordship--I don't believe that.
(An inquiry should be instituted into the truth of this prisoner's allegations; for, no matter how mean, or wretched, or guilty he may be, we know of no right by which he should suffer merely to gratify the irritated feelings of a public servant. It is a maxim that "right is right, and wrong is wrong; but wrong is no man's right".)
The court, at its rising, adjourned to half-past nine o'clock on Monday morning.
CAVAN ASSIZES (Continued)
MONDAY -- CROWN COURT.
Baron PENNEFATHER took has seat to-day at ten o'clock.
The following petty jury were sworn: William FAROS (foreman), Anthony GILROY, William SQUIRE MONEYPENY, William CARMICHAEL, Robert KELLETT, Henry MAXWELL, David GRIFFITH, John BRADY, Thomas HARTLY, John REILLY (Butlersbridge), Jonathan TILSON, and John MOORE.
Terence SHENAN and Patrick SHENAN were indicted for a violent assault on Felix BAXTER.
Farrell BAXTER sworn--I was living at John GLANCY's of Aughnacleevy, on the 19th of January; about 8 or 9 o'clock on that night, as I ws sifting at the fire, the two prisoners came in; Terence asked me did I say I'd beat his niece, or any one belonging to her? I said not; Mr. GLANCY ordered them out; they went out, and Terence stripped outside the door to fight, I followed them; the prisoner, Patt, then knocked me down with the stick that bolted the hall door (the stick was produced, a bludgeon such as Finn M'COUL, of celebrated memory, might wield) prisoner identified it; I was knocked senseless; Terry struck me when rising with a walking-stick, I was sick for some days, eight or nine; my stomach turned; I was brought to Dr. SHERIDAN, of Killeshandra.
Cross-examined by Mr. DOHERTY--I gave no offence; never done much quarrelling; was in a couple of quarrels; the last before this, I gave a fellow a few stripes of a stick (laughter); a very light stick; his name was Pat REILLY; I was summoned for that, but not tried; REILLY settled with me (laughter), or I with REILLY--it's much the same. I am a labouring boy; I gave him 6s., to settle--not a bad day's work (laughter) I never told Bessy MOLLOY I'd kick John REILLY, or any one belonging to her; Bessy MOLLOY is prisoner's niece; I had nothing in my hand going out; I took up a tongs, but did not bring them out, nor hold them over my head; will swear that; Terry appeared to have some whiskey in; each had a walking-stick; will swear I didn't hear any of the prisoners "stop in the house;" will swear Terry gave the challenge.
John GLANCY sworn--He coorborated the testimony of the preceding witness. Before he had concluded
His Lordship interrupted, by saying the prisoners should be convicted of a common assault. The jury returned a verdict accordingly, and the sentence was "six months' imprisonment."
OBTAINING GOODS UNDER A FORGED ORDER:
Mary CANE was charged with having obtained a quantity of goods upon a forged order,
Edward Jackson sworn--I keep a shop in Ballinagh; I recollect the 7th of January; the prisoner gave me an order upon that day, for a variety of articles (a document produced to witness for identification); this is not it; I gave her 2½ stone of flour, ¼ lb. of tea, 1½ lb. of sugar, one six-penny loaf, one three-penny ditto, a glass of spirits, some soap, a ha'porth of soda, and other things; the order was signed "Ellen HETHERINGTON;" the prisoner on taking away the things, asked even for a bill to show her mistress (another order handed to witness); this is the one; Mrs. HETHERINGTON and her husband had been in the habit of dealing with me.
Mrs.HETHERINGTON examined--I did not write the order now produced; I never gave prisoner an order to get things; I know prisoner; prisoner is married, her husband lives at Wattle-bridge, not Ballinagh.
Verdict--Guilty. Six months' hard labour.
HOUSE-BREAKING AND ROBBERY.
Thomas FINNEGAN and Pat MAGUIRE were put in the dock, charged with breaking into the house of Michael BURNS, and taking thereout a quantity of meal, butter and several articles of wearing apparel.
Michael BURNS examined--Remembers the 4th of December twelve- months; I had gone to bed on that night after closing up my house, when nine persons came and broke in the door; eight entered with sticks, and one remained outside, who had a gun, one of them caught me round the arms, and another took a firkin of butter, while the rest went to search the house; the fellow was taking the firkin of butter out at the door when I thought, in my own mind, that wouldn't do, I made a fling from the fellow that had me, and, and snapped back the firkin into the middle of the floor; a tall, clever man then struck me, and made me bleed; they took the butter, a hogshead of meal, nine shillings in money, and a waistcoat, with 3d in half-pence in the pockets, and a pen'orth of nails; when they took up the waistcoat they thought they had a lob (laughter); faith, they took lob and all (increased laughter); I didn't know them then; knew FINIGAN on the hinges of six months after; I can't be mistaken (looking at the prisoner, and soliloquising), he's secure--he'll not escape now (laughter); I had a candle lighting; FINEGAN was one of the party.
Cross-examined by Mr. M'GAURAN--I went to FINIGAN's house; I was on the look out for him; I heard he was in that country; I took a tower (tour) and saw sixty men working on the line, he wasn't among them; my woman allowed he was one of the robbers.
Mr. M'GAURAN--Was it your wife told you that he was one of the men.
His Lordship--That is not what he said. His wife allowed that prisoner was one of the party; but he also recognised him himself.
Cross-examination continued--When I went to FINIGAN's, his mother said he was not one of the party who robbed me; I said if he was not, nothing would be done to him, as both I and my wife saw all of them with two candles; she then said the house would be burned over me; I was afeard before, but that made me ten times worse (laughter).
Did you arrest FINIGAN then?
No, I couldn't take him by the head (laughter).
Bridget BURNS, wife to former witness, examined--She identified the two prisoners as being of the party.
Verdict--Guilty. Transported for fifteen years.
John M'GORRY, Thomas M'KIERNAN, and John FITZPATRICK, were charged with being of a party who attacked the house of Bernard MARTIN in January last, assaulting him, and, by threats, extorting from his wife the sum of 3s.--Acquitted.
Patrick DUNNERY and Michael M'PARTLAND were charged with being of the same party; but the Grand Jury ignored the bills.
The Grand Jury would not find a bill in the case of Peter KING, who was charged with having caused the death of George MOORE, by inflicting injuries upon him while found stealing potatoes.
John M'ANALY was convicted of having a pair of brogues in his possession that was stolen from Peter GAYNOR. Three months imprisonment.
John, Pat, and Bessy MAGAGHRAN, were indicted for having on the night of the 14th of February inst., attacked Owen M'CABE on the public road, assaulted and robbed him of two six-pences, some bread sugar, &c. The jury returned a verdict of guilty. Sentence--John to be transported for seven years, his wife Bessy to be imprisoned for one week, and Mary and Pat to be improsoned for six calendar months, and kept to hard labour.
Thomas and Patrick SAGE were placed in the dock, for having in their possession a quantity of stolen articles, the property of Edward DONOHOE, Patt SAGE acquitted; Thomas SAGE found guilty, and transported for ten years.
The Court sat to-day at ten o'clock.
Randal PRATT, Esq., made application to have his trial posponed until next assizes, in consequence of the death of Michael WILLIAMSON, Esq., his attorney.
Mr. SCHOALES resisted on behalf of Crown, and said the only way he could have his application granted, would be by remaining in custody until next assizes.
Mr. DOHERTY said he had stood out on two sureties of 50l. each from assizes to assizes, and it would be manifestly unjust, if the postponement were granted, to imprison Mr. PRATT.
Mr. SMYLEY asked who were the securities.
The Clerk of the Crown, Robert MALCOMSON, Esq., of Kingscourt, surgeon, and Richard PRATT, Esq., of Farney.
Mr. WILCOX, R.M., here stated that Dr. MALCOMSON had fled the country.
Mr. R. PRATT--Mr. WILCOX, I think your statement is uncalled for.
Mr. WILCOX--I heard and believe it, and would say so on my oath.
Mr. PRATT--your interference is uncalled for, Mr. WILCOX.
Mr. WILCOX--Not at all--not at all, Mr. PRATT.
The suggestion of the Crown was acted upon during the day, and Mr. PRATT arrested.
The following jurors were sworn: Henry HUMPHREYS, of Cavan (foreman), Wm. FAIRIS of Faninseer, Wm. MOORE BLACK, Anthony GILROY, Wm. SQUIRE MONEYPENNY, James BERRY, jun., Alexander BERRY, Wm. CARMICHAEL, Henry MAXWELL, Francis CLINTON, David GRIFFITH, Thomas FITZGERALD.
Thomas PRIOR was given to the jury in charge for being one of three armed men, who entered the house of Thomas DOLAN, and robbed him of his gun. The prisoner was indicted under the Act 1 and 2 Wm. IV., sec. 44, commonly called the "Whiteboy Act."
Thomas DOLAN sworn--I live at Garratlough, barony of Tullyhaw; I remember the 21st of December; that was the big market day of Ballinamore, and the fair-day of Swanlinbar; at three o'clock in the day, three men came into the house and asked for a gun; one of them stood up on a chair and took down a gun I had hanging over the fire-place; the prisoner is that man; the party then went out, and I followed them; they went towards Swanlinbar; I tracked them to the house of a man named CASSIDY; CASSIDY's is about a mile- and-a-half or two miles from my place; I took a few neighbour boys and pursued them to CASSIDY's; when we arrived, I demanded my gun from the party inside; it was refused; I threatened to burn down the house; some one inside them put out the top of a gun with a bayonet and fired at us; we fired in return; there were four shots discharged altogether, but no harm was done; after that my gun was put out under the door, and I took it away; I didn't see any of the prisoner's before.
Cross-examined by Mr. JOHNSTON--When the men were taking away the gun, they said it would be returned before 12 o'clock; couldn't say whether day or night; I knew prisoner by eye-sight before this oroccurred; I did not certainly hear of a reward in this case--some said 50l.; not a bad lob of money these hard times; will swear I did not offer half the reward to Mrs. CASSIDY to help me to prosecute; I couldn't say I'd take the reward if it were offered.
Mr. JOHNSTON--Oh! you wouldn't take the 50l.!
Witness--I don't know will it be given.
Mr. JOHNSTON--You have little confidence in the government then! You think they would not pay the 50l.?
Witness--If I thought so, I wouldn't be here (laughter).
Bridget CASSIDY sworn--I know Thomas DOLAN; I heard he was outside of my house on the 21st of December; didn't see him; before that three men entered, one had a gun, another a pistol, and a third a bayonet; when DOLAN's party demanded a gun, four shots were then fired; two in and two out; myself and two children were in the house when the first party came.
To Mr. JOHNSTON--I think prisoner at the bar was not one of them; saw him first in Swanlinbar a fort-night ago; DOLAN did not tell me to swear prisoner was one of the party; he said I'd be well paid for my trouble, he also said he knew none of the three men. Verdict--Not guilty.
Thomas SHERIDAN was next arraigned, charged with sheep-stealing. The prisoner pleaded guilty, stating that hunger and hardship made him do it; and that the carcass was found and restored to the owner. Sentence--Twelve months' imprisonment and hard labour.
ATTEMPT TO MURDER James LYNCH and Daniel M'ENTEE were then placed at the bar, charged with having fired shots that wounded William WINSLOW in the thigh, with intent to take his life. There were three counts in the indictment; the first charged LYNCH with firing the shot, M'ENTEE with aiding and abetting; the second count charged M'ENTEE with firing the shot, and LYNCH aiding and abetting; and the third count charged both prisoners with firing, thereby causing grievous bodily injury &c.;
Counsel for the Crown--Mr. SCHOALES, Q.C., Mr. SMYLEY, Q.C., Mr. BROOKE, Q.C., and Mr. MAJOR, Q.C., counsel for the prisoners-- Mr. BOYD; solicitor--Mr. KNIPE.
The following jurors were then sworn to try the case:--Mr. HUMPHREYS of Cavan (foreman), Mr. FARIS of Farninseer, Wm. S. MONEYPENY, James BERRY, jun., Alexander BERRY, Mr. CARMICHAEL, Mr. LOUGH, John BRADY of Ardlogher, Jonathan TILSON, and Thomas REILLY of Derrygarra.
The following were challenged by Mr. KNIPE--Wm. MOORE BLACK, Anthony GILROY, David GRIFFITH, Thomas HARTLY of Countenan, Samuel SIMPSON, James BLACK of Tunnymore, Thomas BROWN of Cavan, John DOWNEY, James HESLIP of Derrycramp, Richard HUMPHREYS of Drumgoola, Joseph JOHNSTON, Charles LAMB, James MONTGOMERY of Cavan, Thomas MATHEWS of Cavan, Isaac PRATT of Pullymore and Thomas FITZGERALD challenged for cause, having expressed an opinion.
Mr. SCHOALES opened the case in a brief address. "Gentlemen of the jury," said Mr. SCHOALES, "the men at the bar, James LYNCH and Daniel M'ENTEE, are indicted for shooting at William WINSLOW with intent to take his life. It appears WINSLOW is bailiff to a gentleman of the name of BOYD, and that on the 27th of December last he went to see Mr. BOYD to Cootehill; he was on his return home when the crime was charged upon the prisoners was committed. Witness was accompanied by several persons; when near Bunno-bridge his attention was attracted by two men talking on the road. WINSLOW turned round and observed two pistols presented at him; both went off at the same time. [The witnesses will state to you, gentlemen, how near these persons were e to him when those shots were fired.] The indictment is so framed that whichever of the men inflicted the wound, he cannot escape. On receiving the hurt, WINSLOW galloped to the house of a man named FOY, and there he met the Rev. Mr. CLARKE, P.P., who took the kindest care of him, placed him on his horse, and escorted him home. This is a short view of the case, gentlemen. It will be your duty to weigh well the testimony that may be submitted to you, and to pronounce whether the prisoners at the bar, or either of them, were the party that com- mitted the assault."
William WINSLOW examined by Mr. MAJOR, Q.C.--I live at Redhills, townland of Kilcross; I am bailiff for Mr. BOYD; on the 27th of December last I was at Mr. BOYD's house; I went about ten o'clock in the morning, and remained there until the evening; I left before dusk to return home; I was riding; it might be near to four o'clock; it was not dark at the time; when I came to Drummury planting, near Bunno-bridge, I saw two persons on the road; I knew them before; I see them now in the court--the prisoners at the bar; LYNCH lives in Drumskelt, and M'ENTEE in Coolnacanadas; I knew them before perfectly; they came down a bridle lane to the road, stopped a minute, and then walked slowly on before me; I pulled them up; they then walked on side by side with me for a while; I spoke to LYNCH, said it was a fine night; LYNCH did not reply, a boy named BRADY accompanied me from Cootehill; it was he gave the alarm; he told me I ws shot; I turned round, and just as I did so I received the shot in the thigh; when I turned round LYNCH had a short gun or a carbine, and M'ENTEE had a pistol; both pieces were presented at me; I had time to see them before the shots were fired; I have no doubt of the prisoners being the men; they were as near to me as you (to Mr. MAJOR); when I received the wound I felt very numb; I lay for five weeks after; BRADY was a little behind when the shots were fired; I had been conversing with him when we overtook the prisoners; after getting the hurt, I galloped off to a neighbouring house, or rather the horse stopped at it; it was in the habit of doing so; a man of the name of Foy keeps the house.....(repetitive information).
Cross-examined by Mr. BOYD--I am not long bailiff for Mr. BOYD; a man of the name of FARMER had been bailiff before me, he died, and his son acted in his stead; this boy, I believe was dismissed to make way for me; I can't say or swear whether young FARMER was jealous of me or not.... (repetitive information)
Mr. BOYD to the Court--I don't want to take the Crown by surprise, but I will establish a contradiction between the witness's evidence now, and his informations before the magistrate.
Mr. BOYD moved to have the depositions referred to read at this state of the proceedings, but the Court decided to the contrary.
(Testimony from other witnesses)
Andrew M'QUILLAN, Bernard LEONARD, Ellen M'CONNELL, and Thomas BROGAN were called to prove an alibi for M'ENTEE; and Nancy CUSACK, Pat SHERRY, and Francis REILLY, an alibi for LYNCH.
His Lordship charged the jury, recapitulating the evidence with great minuteness, and putting in the most favourable light the points which would tend to the prisoners' acquittal.
The jury retired, and in about half an hour returned into court. The attention of the multitude that thronged the galleries, the body of the court, and every available corner, was painfully intense when the following verdict was pronounced:--LYNCH guilty of all the counts, with a recom- mendation to mercy; M'ENTEE not guilty.
The finding against LYNCH, being informal, the issue paper was handed back, and the jury returned a general verdict of "guilty".
The prisoners were then removed.
In the absence of the former jury another was sworn. Edward COONEY (foreman), Anthony GILROY, Henry GRAHAM, John DOWNEY, Thomas BROWN, Wm. MOORE BLACK, David GRIFFITH, Wm. SMITH, Edmund WINSLOW, Thomas HARTLEY, Charles MORTIMER, and David KELLETT.
George MAHOOD was arraigned, charged with firing at and wounding David CHERRY, so as to endanger his life.
Upon an affidavit being filed, the prisoner had his trial postponed until next assizes, he himself remaining in custody.
Frank MULLIGAN was then indicted for having been one of the armed party who attacked and robbed the house of John WATSON, of Portlongfield, on the 2d February.
After a patient investigation, in which Mr. and Mrs. WATSON proved the robbery, and fully identified the prisoner, he was convicted, and sentenced to be transported for 15 years.
Edward FITZPATRICK was the next prisoner put in the dock. He was charged with entering the house of Joseph SMITH, in company with another man, breaking his furniture, &c.; The principal witness in this case was a little girl, Susan SMITH, who stated that her father, mother, and herself, and two sisters, were engaged that assizes as approvers prosecuting various parties, and that verdicts of acquittal had been returned in every instance.
The jury acquitted the prisoner.
The Court was then adjourned.
CAVAN SPRING ASSIZES
The Court opened at 10 o'clock. The following were sworn on the jury:--William SQUIRE MONEYPENY (foreman), Robert FITZGERALD, William M. BLACK, John DOWNEY, Francis CLINTON, Thomas BROWN, Jas. BLACK, Arthur ELLICE, Laurence LAMB, Alexander CLEMENGER, Arthur FINLAY, and Francis M'CABE.
John REILLY was charged with breaking into the house of Michael M'QUILLAN, on the 11th of May, assaulting and robbing him of several articles of wearing apparel.
Michael M'QUILLN sworn--Lives at Dresdernan; recollects the night of the 11th of May last; was called upon to open the door after going to bed; got up; the door was forced open, and the prisoner entered; prisoner struck him with a pistol; witness grappled with him, and both fell on the floor; the prisoner attempted to cock the pistol, but failed; the ramrod was broken in the struggle; witness then made his escape to a neighbour's thinking prisoner had others with him; sent his cousin next morning for his clothes; a coat and other things were stolen; the door was secured by a good lock.
Cross-examined by Mr. KNIPE--Swore his informations next morning before Mr. HUMPHREYS, of Ballyhaise; the prisoner was the man he swore against, with the exception of not calling him John; he did not know his Christian name then; will swear positively that Mr. HUMPHREYS did not discredit his testimony; swore the informations upon which the prisoner is now indicted before a bench of magistrates in this court; can't tell whether Mr. HUMPHREYS was present or not at the time; considers himself respectable, and witness a bad character; for character can appeal to Mr. SWANZEY and others.
Sergeant MORRISON, of Ballyhaise, sworn--Saw the last witness on the 12th of May; his eye was cut, as if with a pistol, and the door was split open; brought M'QUILLAN to Mr. HUMPHREYS, who is a magistrate.
To Mr. DOHERTY--Upon my oath Mr. HUMPHREYS did not refuse the last witness's informations because he disbelieved him; was present when M'QUILLAN swore his statement before the magistrates at petty session; M'QUILLAN told him the pistol belonged to CLARKE, but said the act was committed by a man of the name of REILLY, though he did not know his other name, and that he would find out all about him, and have him taken.
Sergeant DOLAN, of Redhills sworn--Arrested the prisoner in a public house in Redhills on the 20th of May.
To Mr. DOHERTY--Did not go to prisoner's residence to look for him; heard he was in a public-house; went there and found him.
John MONAHAN--The prisoner has a good character; knew him from he had the petticoats on; was never charged with anything until this time.
To Mr. SMYLEY--had a conversation with M'QUILLAN; told him not to do his worst against prisoner if he had him in his power; believes a James REILLY of the same neighbourhood, who has since fled to America, to be the person who committed the act.
John HOWE and ______LYNCH also gave prisoner a good character. They stated that the county at large accused the man that fled with having committed the crime. Prisoner lived twelve years with one of them, and during that time was faithful and honest.
Michael REILLY and Hugh GOUGH were arraigned for robbing James REILLY on the 20th of January, 1847, at Sugarloaf, of two 3l notes, a silver watch, and other articles.
Mr. KNIPE defended the prisoners.
James REILLY examined--The prisoner, Hugh GOUGH, was one of those that robbed me; I was in my own house on the evening of the robbery; there were five in all; each had a pistol; they demanded money; I denied having any; they search the place; took about 42l in notes, a purse with 8s. or 10s. in silver, a watch, a pair of pistols, &c., two of the prisoners held me by the collar while the rest searched the house; GOUGH was one of the two; can't swear to the other prisoner; I never got any of my money back; I am positive GOUGH was the first man came into the house.
Cross-examined by Mr. JOHNSTON--Some of the party were tried at the July assizes and acquitted; the robbery was committed in the beginning of Jan., 1847; after the robbery, I went to Mr. KNIPE's; said to him I thought I wouldn't know any of the party, as they were all strangers; in the month of June after I swore my informations; before that time had a conversation with Mrs. SMITH on the subject; Mrs. SMITH gave me the names and descriptions of these men as being of the party; after the robbery she joined the party, and they all went into a public house in Belturbet to drink; she saw some of my goods with them; she pointed out GOUGH to me on the road; GOUGH's back was was to me then, and I could not identify him; he was a great piece from me at the time; I know Thomas REILLY of Derryerra; I was speaking to him last night in this court-house; upon my oath I did not tell him nor any other person that I was not sure of the prisoners; I didn't see GOUGH's face towards me any time on the day he was pointed out to me; I changed my mind when I saw him at the sessions; Mrs. SMITH told me where GOUGH lived; I didn't go to look after him, but the police did several times and couldn't find him.
Mary SMITH sworn--Recollects the night of the robbery; was on the road that night; saw the prisoners and others on the road.
To Mr. KNIPE--After that went to Thomas COSGRAVE's Belturbet; COSGRAVE is a decent man; Red Mickey, the blackguard, was a favorite with my daughter; I separated them; my daughter went to America after getting money from the crown; I could not be accountable for my daughter when I was in Scotland; he was back and forward in my house when I was absent, but he never slept a night there; the prisoners were acquitted in all the cases where I and my four daughters prosecuted this assizes.
Mr. Thomas COSGRAVE examined--Am a shopkeeper in Belturbet; I swear positively that none of the party named were in my house on that night; if the last witness swore they were she swore falsely.
The jury convicted GOUGH, and acquitted Michael REILLY. GOUGH was transported for ten years.
Bessy and James HAGERTY (husband and wife) were put in the dock, charged with murdering their infant child. Dr. WADE of Belturbet proved to the female prisoner having had a child which under his care in the Town Hospital on the 27th of January. The body of a child was afterwards found which exhibited marks of violence, having been appearantly sufficated, and which the prisoner acknowledged to be his. Dr. WADE detailed clearly and succintly the delicate state of the mother, and the possibility of her having overlaid it.
Mr. DOHERTY addressed the jury for the defence in a very able and pathetic speech, in which he paid a just tribute to Dr. WADE, who, he said was one of the best and most respectable physicians of this county. In the course of the address, Mr. DOHERTY exhibited the utter wretched- ness of the prisoners at the bar, pourtrayed (sic) in vivid coulars the fearful state of an Irish cabin, infested with fever, its inmates starving and abandoned by every human being.
The jury immediately acquitted the prisoners.
Charles SMITH was charged with having in his possession a bluecloth mantle, which had been stolen from George CROOKS in the beginning of February.--Acquitted.
Andrew GALLIGAN was indicted and convicted of an assault upon James M'MAHON, a poor-rate collector, in the discharge of his duty. The prisoner was sentenced to one month's imprisonment.
A boy named Bernard M'CAUL was charged with breaking a window, and stealing a watch the property of John MURRAY of Cavan. Wm. STEPHENSON (mr. M's Grandson) proved the robbery. The prisoner was convicted. Having been frequently in prison (as stated by the jailer) his lordship sentenced him to seven years' transportation.
James LIDDY was convicted of stealing four stone of potatoes. Three month's imprisonment.
Biddy SLATOR pleaded guilty of stealing from the person of Mr. THOMPSON, on the 20th of February the sum of 13s. 6d. Transported for seven years.
Tome (sic) more larceny cases were disposed of, after which his Lordship had the prisoner, James LYNCH, put forward to receive sentence.
SENTENCED TO DEATH
The Clerk of the Crown having asked the prisoner had he anything to say why sentence of death and execution should not be passed upon him, and receiving no reply,
His Lordship briefly addressed him as follows:--"James LYNCH, you have been found guilty of being in wait to take away the life of another many, you discharged your pistol at him, and that he has been spared is not owing to you, but to the providence of God. Another man was charged with being the second person who assisted in the perpetration of the crime; but the case not being clearly proved, he was acquitted....The jury having accompanied their verdict with a recommendation to mercy, because life was not taken away; that recommendation, I fear, cannot have any effect in procuring a mitigation of your sentence. I will, however, transmit it to the Lord Lieutenant, and if the state of the country allows it you will have your sentence mitigated.....
His Lordship subsequently fixed the 29th of April as the day of execution.
Throughout the proceedings the prisoner seem anxiously interested in the proceedings, at the same time mentioned a firm bearing....
The court then adjourned.
The Lord Chief Baron was occupied today in hearing Crown cases, and Baron PENNEFAATHER (sic) in Law traverses for damages.
Anthony SMITH was found guilty of having part of a stolen cow in his possession, 18 months' imprisonment, with hard labour, for the first fortnight of each month.
Bartley ROGERS and Brien KEIRNAN were charged with having parts of a stolen sheep in their possession. ROGERS pleaded guilty, and got seven months' imprisonment, with hard labour the first of each, KEIRNAN pleaded not guilty, and was acquitted.
At one o'clock the courts arose, and their Lordships proceeded to Enniskillen.
TESTIMONIAL TO PEIRCE MORETON--The friends of Pierce MORETON, Esq., and others desirous of subscribing to the Testimonial about to be presented to that Gentleman, will please forward their subscriptions on or before the 8th of March, instant (on which day the final arrangements will be entered into), to Mr. John MORROW, of Ballyjamesduff, Collector.
CAVAN UNION.--We have the pleasure of announcing the arrival of Ponsonby TOTTENHAM, Esq., of the county Leitrim, as guardian of this union, and coadgutor of Robert BATES, Esq., vice H.G.R. ROBINSON, Esq., removed to the Commissariat.
On the 1st March at Cavan Church, by the Rev. A. MONEYPENY, Jane, eldest daughter of the late Thomas MOORE, Esq., of Waterloo Cottage, Cavan (Ensign in the 71st Highland Light Infantry), to Henry LLEWELLYN, Sergeant-Major 6th Dragoon Guards, or Carbineers, Belturbet.
On the 26th ult., at his residence, Tully, Killeshandra, Mr. Charles MAGEE, in the 74th year of his age.
RECORD COURT - WEDNESDAY
John JACK, Lesse of the Rev. Baptist Burton CROZURE v. Fras. HUMPHREYS.
This was an ejectment of title for recovery of part of the lands of Knockfad.
For the plaintiff--Messrs. SHIEL, Q.C. and Brook agents,--James and John ARMSTRONG.
For the defendant--Messrs. MAJOR, Q.C. and Peebles agent-- Mr. TULLY.
Verdict for the plaintiff.
Patrick LYNCH, Plaintiff, Thomas WILTON, Defendant.
This was an action of trespass for assault and battery. The damage laid at £100.
It appeared from the statement of Mr. SHEIL, the plaintiffs counsel, that the plantiff and two other persons were rowing a cot up to Ballyhilland bridge in May last, the defendant who was standing on the bridge, threw two stones at the cot, both of which severely, and causing great loss of blood.
Four witnesses were called for the plaintiff, who fully proved the case as stated.
Mr. MAJOR for the defendant addressed the jury at considerable length, and said it was an act frivolous and vexatious, and merely for the purpose of obtaining costs.
Some witnesses were then examined for the defendant, to show that stones were thrown by several parties about the bridge where the defendant was, and that plaintiff threw stones in return, one of which struck the defendant.
Mr. JOHNSTON replied for the plaintiff, in a very able and judicious speech, calling upon the jury to do justice to the poor man, who came into that court to see redress, and to the professional man who had the courage and humanity to bring that case forward before the court and county should not be reprehended, but commended.
His Lordship charged the jury to find a verdict for the plaintiff. The jury returned, and in a short time brought in a verdict of 6d. damages and 6d. costs.
The Lord Chief Baron said at once he would certify for the plaintiff, so as to give him his costs.
The verdict appeared to surprise his lordship, as well as every person in court.
Counsel for Plaintiff--James SHEIL, Q.C., and Robert JOHNSTON. Agent--Mr. Edward M'GAURAN.
Counsel for Prisoners--James MAJOR, Q.C., and James DOHERTY. Agent--Mr. James ARMSTRONG.
March 10 1848
Feb. 28, in Upper-Mount-street, the lady of Thomas RICE HENN, Esq., barrister-at-law, of a son.
Feb. 27, in Pembroke-street, the lady of Henry J. LESLIE, Esq., barrister-at-law, of a daughter.
Feb. 29, in Old Dominick-street, the lady of David LYNCH. Esq., of a son.
Feb. 28, in Leeson-street, the lady of John H. O'RORKE, Esq., of a daughter.
On Tuesday, at Drumlane church, by Rev. G. B. JAMIESON, and afterwards by the Rev. P. O'REILLY, C.C., Richard WHITE O'DONOVAN, Esq., M.R.C.S., eldest son of William O'DONOVAN, Esq., to Emily, only daughter of M. B. THORNTON, Esq. of Belturbet.
March 2, at St. Bridget's, Dublin, by the Rev. John WHITLEY, D.D., John MITCHELL, Esq., Monaghan, eldest son of the late Joseph MITCHELL, Esq., to Maria, fifth daughter of the late Dr. ARMSTRONG, of Clones.
At the same time, James M'LANAHAN, Esq., of Altnacarney House, Tysrone, to Matilda, youngest daughter of the late Dr. ARMSTRONG.
March 1, at Piltdown House, county Meath, Mary, relict of the late Francis BRODIGAN, Esq., of Droghega.
February 26, at Tentower House, Queen's County, John, only son of Robert WOLFE, Esq.
March 4, suddenly, Mr. Thomas BUCKLEY,sen. of Monastery, near Enniskerry.
At Abbeyland, near Eyrecourt, of typhus fever, Charles CONWAY, second son of the late Charles SEYMOUR, Esq., Somerset-house, co. Galway.
CARRICK-ON-SHANNON--On Saturday last, Hugh KELLY, convicted of the murder of John M'GREEVY, was brought up for judgment, and sentenced to be hanged on the 3d April.
WATERFORD--On Saturday two men were convicted of conspiracy to murder Mr. Arthur USHER. Sentence of death recorded.
KING'S COUNTY--On Saturday Thos. SHEA and Wm. DWYER were convicted of firing, with intent to kill, at Stephen DOBBYR, a police constable, and sentenced to be hanged on the 28th of March.
March 17, 1848
TENANT RIGHT IN MEATH
On Wednesday, a most numerous meeting of the clergy, landholders, tenant farmers, and ratepayers of the county Meath was held in the Courthouse at Navan for the purpose of expressing their opinion upon the proposed measure for regulating the relations of landlord and tenant in Ireland, as introduced by Sir William SOMERVILLE, and of declaring the necessity for legalising the tenant right of Ulster and extending it over the other provinces of the Kingdom.
The attendance was exceedingly large, particularly of that class which might, judging from their comfortable appearance, be designated as substantial tenant farmers, and who seemed to take the deepest interest in the proceedings. The chair was taken by Patrick BARNWELL, Esq., of Cascestown.
A letter was read from M. E. CORBALLY, Esq., regretting his inability to attend.
The meeting was addressed at great length by Wm. FORD, Esq., Assistant Crown Solicitor, who condemned the bill of Wm. SOMER- VILLE's as a delusion.
The Rev. Mr. KELLY, P.P., of Kilskyre, spoked also on the same effect, after which the meeting adjourned.
ANOTHER DEATH FROM DESTITUTION--
(From Our Own Correspondent)
Doctor M'FADDEN, one of the coroners for this county, held an inquest on the body of Margaret WALSH, a little girl aged eleven years, at Cornabrahen, about three miles southwest of Cootehill, on Saturday last. The only witnesses examined before the coroner and jury were, Mary WALSH, the mother of deceased, and Doctor Thomas HORAN, of Cootehill. The former, on being sworn and examined deposed, that she and her seven children were admitted into the workhouse of Cootehill, on the 24th of December last (her husband having about a year previous gone to Scotland to seek for employment as a labourer), and in the month of October last, she and her children--then eight in number--followed him, but he being then out of employment, she left the eldest child with him, and returned with the other seven children to Ireland; and when in the workhouse, deceased (some weeks ago) became ill with a bowel-complaint-- and on the 26th last month she was informed by the master of the work- house, that in consequence of being a deserted widow, she and her children must leave the house, but that on making an affidavit of being deserted by her husband they (herself and her children) would receive outdoor relief; but in consequence of having declined or neglected to make such an affidavit they were refused same. After having left the workhouse, she and her children stopped for a few days at James DRENNINGS, of Cornabraher, where one of her children died on the 6th inst. of a bowel-complaint, and after that she and the remainder of her children took refuge in a waste-house belonging to the Rev. Mr. M'QUAID, P.P. of Kill, where deceased died last night. and were it not for the assistance which she and her children since received from his Reverence and Mrs. ROBERTS, they would all, she verily believes, have died of starvation! She has no complaint to prefer against the relieving officer of the district, but is of the opinion that the cold with which the deceased child was affected whilst in the workhouse, accelerated her death, although she never made any complaint, on the subject to the officers of the workhouse, and she is decidedly of opinion that unless some relief be now given to herself and children, they cannot survive many days longer. Thomas HORAN, Esq., of Cootehill, surgeon, deposed, that he had examined the body of deceased, which was much swollen from dropsy, and presented all the features of destitution and want which, in his opinion, accelerated her death.
"We find that the death of Margaret WALSH was accelerated by destitution and want; and we are of opinion that her mother and the remainder of her children will share the same fate, except some relief be given them, as she is deserted by her husband who is in Scotland, and we believe that there was a laxity of discipline on the part of the officers of the Cootehill poor-house when deceased and family left it, in making arrangements for their immediate outdoor relief."
In reference to the foregoing, it may be well here to state that a very considerable number of poor women, who, together with their starving children, had been dismissed from the Cootehill workhouse, under similar circumstances, and who were refused any substenance by the relieving officers until they produced declarations made before and signed by a magistrate, stating that they had been deserted by their husbands, applied to Mr. T. E. L. CLEMENTS, J.P., the chairman at the petty sessions held in Cootehill on Saturday, the 14th instant, for the purpose of having same signed, but notwithstanding that they implored and entreated him to sign them, but refused to do so, stating that it was the duty of the relieving officers to ascertain if they were entitled to relief, and if so, to afford it to them without any such declarations being produced to them. Nous verrons.
At Cootehill, on Wednesday, the 1st instant, the lady of the Rev. Wm. M'GARVEY, of Rogers's Big House, Church-street, of a daughter.
At Cootehill, on the 13th instant, the lady of John CAMPBELL, Esq., of Market-street, of a daughter.
At Bailieborough, County Cavan, Sunday, the 12th instant, Mrs. James G. ADAMS, of a daughter.
At Fitzwilliam-square, Dublin, on the 11th instant, the lady of Captain LONGFIELD, 12th Regiment, of a daughter.
In St. Thomas's Church, Dublin, John Thomas ROSSBOUROUGH, Esq., of Mullinagoan House, County Fermanagh, to Mary GREY WENTWORTH, only surviving child of the late Chief Justice Caesar COLCLOUGH, P.P.C., Duffry Hall, county Wexford.
At Clones, on the 2nd instant, after a few days' illness, aged 18 years, Master James COSGROVE. Nature had endowed him with superior talents. He possessed at his early age a mind polished, learned, and refined. He had nearly completed a regular course of medical education, and the ability and skill which he displayed in that capacity were to gain him the esteem and respect of the profession. It was in his unwearied exertions in the cause of suffering humanity, he caught the disease which so prematurely terminated the sphere of his usefulness. His mild and amiable disposition, gentle and unassuming manners, endeared him to his acquaintances. The large number of respectable persons who attended his remains to the grave, show the respect and esteem in which he was held by every class, and could not but afford consolation to his sorrowing relatives. He has left a widowed mother to weep over his early grave.
At his residence in Westbourne-terrace, Hyde-park, London, aged seventy-five, Sir William YOUNG, Bart. He is succeeded in this title by his eldest son, John YOUNG, Esq., M.P., for this County, and late Secretary to the Treasury.
March 24, 1848
ATTEMPT TO POISON A WHOLE FAMILY--A diabolical offence of this description was committed on Monday evening last, on the family of William ALLEN, residing near Ballyhaise. It appears that on the night mentioned, a man named Andy M'MAHON went into ALLAN's house, while ALLAN's wife was making stirabout for the supper. Mrs. ALLEN was called away from the kitchen for a few moments, and on her return she saw M'MAHON stirring the pot; as soon as he saw her he ceased, and shortly afterwards went out, Mrs. ALLEN observing that he made a short "kailly." The whole family, consisting of ALLEN himself, and his wife, Phillip and William, his sons, and Atty FORSTER, a labourer partook of the stirabout, and immediately after, all of them exhibited symptoms of having been poisoned. Dr. ADKINS, of Ballyhaise was called in and under his particularly prompt and skillful attention, the sufferers got relief. Three of them are now on the recovery; but two continue still in a dangerous state. The contents of their stomachs and scrapings of the pot have been sent to Dublin for analyzation. A portion of the stirabout was given to some fowl, which it affected in a similar manner. M'MAHON has been arrested and committed to Cavan Gaol. We have heard of a reason for the atrocious act, arising out of dispute about land.
HIGHWAY ROBBERY--On Friday evening last, about half past eight o'clock, a man named John LENNON, in the employment of Mr. BOOKER, was going home to Ballinagh from Cavan, he was stopped near Drumheel gate, by two or three ruffians, and robbed of the sum of £25 18s. and his watch. After they took all the money he had, they demanded £6 in allver which had been given him by Mr. James REILLY early in the day; he told them he had not got it, having paid it away to Mrs. BRADY, of the Yellow-cross Tavern, previous to leaving town, at which the fellows seemed much disappointed.
REPEAL MEETING IN CASTLERAGHAN--On Friday last our reporter went to Castleraghan, where it was expected a large Repeal meeting would have taken place. A good number assembled in the Chapel-yard, after mass, and signed a petition, praying for the Repeal of the Union, as a measure destructive to the best interests and prosperity of Ireland. After which, there being no speeching, the people quietly dispersed.
FAIR OF CROSSKEYS--A fair was held in this little town on Friday last, which was pretty well attended. There were a great many cows on the green, but all of them singularly poor, and little or no demand. Pigs, which were few, went off rather briskly; other descriptions of stock are not worth mentioning.
ROBBERY AND GALLANT CAPTURE OF THE ROBBER IN BAILIE- BOROUGH--(From a Correspondent)--About 2 o'clock on the morning of the 22nd last, a son of Mr. Thomas SORRAGHAN, of Bailieborough, was proceeding to the house of a young lady in this town; whom SORRAGHAN was going to leave to Kells, on her way to Dublin. The young man was struck with surprise at seeing the shopdoor of Mr. Andrew CARROLL, wollen draper, half open, with a large stone stuck in it to keep it pressed open. He went over to the door and knocked at it, till he awoke Mr. CARROLL, who came down with a candle to the shop, and found about £60 worth of cloths and fancy goods inside the door, which the robber (who gives his name as "WILSON," from Kells) had taken from the shelves and had ready to hand to a boy and girl whom SORAHAN (sic) perceived leaving an adjoining gateway, whilst he was knocking at the door, Mr. CARROLL sent for the police, who were promptly in attendance, and lodged the robber (whom they found concealed in the shop) safely in the bridewell About two months ago, there was about £20 worth of goods taken from the shop of Mr. Henry JAMES, woollen draper of this town, the shop door is made the same as Mr. CARROLL's, and it is supposed that this is the person that took Mr. JAMES's goods, but no trace of them could ever be found, as no doors or locks were disturbed in the least. I am also certain Mr. JAMES's robbery must have been done in the same way Mr. CARROLL's was, for I have received a letter from Mr. CARROLL, giving me an account of the whole affair, and he says "He pried open the door with a crowbar or some such weapon, and then put in a large stone and crushed himself through." Had he escaped unnoticed and taken the stone away, it would be impossible to say how he got in, as there was neither bolt, lock, or door broken. Much credit is due to young SORRAGHAN who with his horse and cart on the street, kept kicking at the door and shouting, "now, boys, the first man who comes out brain him."
BELTURBET--On Sunday night last an atrocious outrage was perpetrated in an attempt to consume a house and a stack of oats at Kilconey, the property of Mr. Thomas CLARKE, of this town. Both were fired with coals, but before much damage was effected, it was providentially discovered, and the diabolical design of the incendiary defeated. It is a matter of surprise to all that there could exist a miscreant so vile and heartless as to attempt to injure the proprietor.
ST. PATRICK'S DAY IN BELTURBET--(From a Correspondent)--The late "Manifesto" was evidently a failure in this town and the different localities about here on the 17th inst., as it was not in any way responded to, but treated as a dead letter. However, in regard to the good old times, the Belturbet Amateur Brass Band played in the evening, at different places through the town, "God save the Queen" and "Patrick's Day", together with many other spirit stirring tunes, which were hailed by the cheer of congre- gated masses. Thus ending the day of our Patron Saint here. The inhabitants, by their wonted, orderly, and loyal conduct, testifying their love of the British Queen and constitution.
ORDINATION IN CAVAN CHURCH At an ordination held by the Lord Bishop of Kilmore, Elphin, and Ardagh, in the parish Church of the united parishes of Urney and Annaghliffe, on the 19th inst., the following gentlemen were ordained:--
DEACONS--Frederick KEATINGE CRADDOCK, A. B., T.C.D., parish of Bray, diocess (sic) of Dublin, Christopher ADAMSON, A.B., T.C.D., parish of Killeshandra, diocess of Kilmore.
PRIESTS--William James SLACKE, A.B., T.C.D., Dublin, parish of Carrigallen, diocess of Kilmore; Garrett WALL, A.B., T.C.D., parish of St. Peter's parish of Killeshandra, diocess of Kilmore; Walter C. PEYTON, A.B., T.C.D., parish of Lavey, diocess of Kilmore; James ARMSTRONG, A.M., T.C.D., parish of Killanagh, diocess of Kilmore; George BLAKE CONCANNON, A.B., T.C.D., parish of Clonfert, diocese (sic) of Clonfert.
MANSLAUGHTER--CORONER'S INQUEST-- Dr. M'FADDIN, one of the coroners for the county Cavan, held an inquest on Thursday, the 16th inst., at Rice-hill, Kilmore, near Cavan, on the body of Mary M'CALLAN, wife of John M'CALLAN, a farmer residing at that place. The following are briefly the facts of the case as gleaned from the evidence given at the inquest:-- Thomas BYRNE, who also resides at Rice-hill, obtained a civil bill decree at the last Hilary Quarter Sessions of Cavan for about the sum of £14 for rent which only became due on the 1st of November previous, and went to the month of January, only a few days after the termination of said sessions, accompanied by his son, John BYRNE, and two other special bailiffs, to execute said decree. They seized upon the cattle of said John M'CALLAN, the defendant, who tendered him the amount of decree and costs, minus the portion of poor rate which he was liable to pay, the defendant having previously paid the whole of same, but BYRNE refused to accept of it, whereupon the defendant refused to permit his cattle to be driven off his land. A scuffle ensued, when John BYRNE struck deceased (who was then standing between her own house and the cattle, and not in front of them) a violent blow with a large staff on the head, which knocked her down and inflicted a severe wound. They then drove off the cattle, when the full amount of the decree and costs, without any deductions, was paid by the defendant, who had his wife removed to the Cavan Infirmary, where she remained for some time until the wound was healed; she then returned to her own residence, and a few days ago she complained of a violent headache, and died on the 14th instant.
Dr. COYNE, of Cavan, performed a post mortem examination on the body, and deposed that she died from the pressure of an abscess on the brain, caused by the wound which had been inflicted on her head.
VERDICT--"We find that the deceased, Mary M'CALLAN, died from injuries of the head, inflicted by John BYRNE in January last; and that he was aided and assisted in the commission of said offence by Thomas BYRNE (his father), Michael BERRY, and Thomas SHERIDAN." The Coroner at once issued his warrant for their arrest. Thomas BYRNE is a middleman, holding under the Bishop of Kilmore at a trifling head-rent.
PRISONERS FOR TRIAL AT COOTEHILL SESSIONS, MARCH 28, 1848 Patrick O'BRIEN, stealing butter. Peter JOHNSTON and Michael MOHAN, committed on a bench warrant for a riot, rescue, and assault on George DILL. Francis SMITH, stealing goods, the property of Thomas HANRATTY. Catherine FARRELL, stealing potatoes, the property of William WILLIAMSON. Edward CLARKE, stealing a cow, the property of Francis KEARNEY. Eleanor COONEY, Patrick COONEY, and Thos. COONEY, having a quantity of oats in their possession, that was stolen from Patrick FARRELLY. Catherine WARD, larceny, from the person of Patt M'CABE, 13s. James ROURKE, stealing a hen from Terence CAVANAGH. Thomas CAVANAGH, stealing carrots and parsnips from C. J. ADAMS, Esq. Rose MARKEY, stealing a hen from Mary CLARKE. Elizabeth FINAGIN and Anne M'MAHON, having in their possession six hens that was stolen from Christopher BURNS. Patrick GALLIGAN, having corduroy in his possession that was stolen from the Cootehill workhouse. Bryan BANNON, assaulting Bridget BANNON. James WOODS, stealing penknives from the Cootehill workhouse. Patrick CONNELL, rescuing cows, seized under the Sessions' decree. Thomas MARTIN and Owen MARTIN, having stolen timber in their possession the property of Col. PRATT. John TROTTER and Bridget BOYLAN, having four hens in their possession which was stolen from Mathew ROE. Susan BRASON, assaulting John BRASON. Ellen SMITH, having a stolen ass in her possession. John M'CABE, having oats in his possession that was stolen from John HUSTAS. Bridget CLARKE, having in her possession a cloak that was stolen from Olivia BYRNE. Anne M'ENERY, having two hens in her possession that was stolen from Laurence HAND. Matty SAGE and Patrick SAGE, having a stolen table-cloth and a sheet in their possession. Rose KING and Andrew KING, having in their possession a goose that was stolen from Phill O'BRIEN.
APPOINTMENT OF OFFICERS The following appointments were made by the Grand Jury of Cavan, at last assizes:-- Mr. Thomas REILLY, of Derrygarra, High Constable for the barony of Upper Loughtee. Mr. James BERRY, High Constable for barony of Tullyhunco-- Mr. THORNTON having resigned. Mr. George Robert GALLOGLY, Assistant Governor of Cavan Gaol.
On the 17th inst., at Up. Fitzwiliam-street, Dublin, the lady of Francis COMYN, Esq., of Woodstock, co. Galway, of a daughter.
On the 18th inst., in Armagh, the lady of the Rev. Richard QUIN, of twins-- a son and a daughter.
In Kilmore church, on the 23rd instant, by Rev. Stuart SMITH, A.M., Mr. Samuel LAURENCE, constable of police, to Emilia, daughter of Mr. Edward BEATTY, late of Enniskillen.
On Saturday the 18th inst., at his residence, New Cavan-street, Cootehill, Henry MITCHELL, Esq., late lieutenant in the Eighth Hussars. His loss is deplored by his interesting family. On the 15th inst., of fever, the Rev. W. R. ELLISON, curate of the parish of Charlestown, Ardee.
COUNTY OF CAVAN A list of Applications received by the Clerk of the Peace from Persons seeking Excise Licenses for Sale of Beer, Spirits, &c., by retail; to be heard and enquired into at Cavan on Tuesday, the 4th of April, immediately after the Grand Jury is sworn.
No. Name of Applicant Residence 1. BRADY, Edward Arva 2. DOUGHERTY, James Killeshandra 3. FINEGAN, Michael Pullamore 4. MAGUIRE, Anne Cavan 5. REILLY, James, jun. same 6. REILLY, Anne same 7. SMITH, Philip same
COUNTY OF CAVAN
AN ALPHABETICAL LIST OF APPLICATIONS FOR THE REGISTRY OF VOTERS.
Lodged with the Clerk of the Peace, pursuant to 2nd and 3rd William IV., Chap. 88,
FOR THE DIVISION OF CAVAN;
To be heard and enquired into at Cavan, on Tueday, the 4th day of April next, at the hour of Nine o'clock, A.M., by and before P. M. MURPHY, Esq., Q.C., Assistant Barrister for said County
No. Name Description and Residence of Applicant. Description of Property. with Name of Townland and Barony in which Registry is Situate Right in Which Registry is claimed Yearly Value £ 1. HEASLIP, Benjamin farmer, Moher House and Land, Moyher. Upr. Loughtee Freeholder £10 2. HARKNESS, Alexander Do., Drumbullion Do., Drumbullion Tullyhunco same £10 3. MAGEE, Henry Do., Tonyloy Do., Toyaloy, Tullyhunco same £10 4. MALCOLMSON, Thomas Do., Togher Do., Togher and Mullnacross Castleraghan, &c. same £50 5. MALCOLMSON, James Do., Do. Do., Do., Do., Do. same £50 6. MALCOLMSON, Christr. Do., Do. Do., Do., Do., Do. same £50 7. PORTERFIELD, William Do., Clare Do., Clare, Castleraghan same £10 8. PORTERFIELD, Moses Do., Do. Do., Do., Do. same £10 9. SPINKS, Nugent Do., Togher Do., Toghe, Do. same £10 10. STRONG, Oliver Do., Moydreston Do., Moydreston &c. Clonmahon same £20 11. WOODS, Orange Do., Clonloghan Do., Clonloghan and Aghkilmore Clonmahon same £20 12. WHITE, Henry Do., Killyvally Do., Carn. Castleraghan same £10
March 15, 1848 GUSTAVUS TUITE DALTON, Clerk of the Peace,
In the matter of Moutray ERSKINE, Petitioner; John BAKER, Respondent
Michael PLUNKET, Petitioner; John BAKER , Respondent
Sarah MOORHEAD, Plaintiff; John BAKER and Ellen P. BAKER, his wife, and others, Defendants
Francis Richard PYNER and Mary NEILSON PYNER, otherwise his wife, Plaintiffs; John BAKER and others, Defendants
PURSUANT TO an Order bearing date the 13th day of June, 1846, made in these matters and causes, I will on FRIDAY, the 31st day of March Instant, at the hour of One o'Clock in the Afternoon, at my Chambers on the Inn's-quay, Dublin, SET UP to the highest and best bidder for the Term of Seven Years, pending those matters and causes, ALL THAT AND THOSE Lands of ASHGROVE, called the Demense, consisting of 80 Acres, and the Dwelling House and Out-Offices erected thereon, situate in the Baronies of Upper and Lower Loughtee, and County of Cavn, and now in the occupation of the said defendant, John BAKER
Dated this 11th Day of March 1848 WILLIAM HENN
IN CHANCERY Henry Theophilus KILBEE and another, Plaintiffs. Maurice DELAP, and others, Defendants
PURSUANT to the Report made in this cause bearing date of of March, 1848, I will, on Wednesday, the 12th day of April next, at the hour of one o'clock in the afternoon at my Chambers on the Inns-quay, in the city of Dublin, Set Up and Let to the highest and fairest Bidder, for seven years pending this cause from the 25th day of March instant, ALL THAT AND THOSE, the House and Lands of RAVENSWOOD, containing 30 acres or thereabouts arable meadow and pasture land, situate in the county of Cavan, in the pleadings and in said report mentioned; formerly the residence of Robert SANDERSON, Esq., deceased, and late in the possession of Mr. Robert THOMPSON.
Dated this 22nd day of March, 1848. E. LITTON
These Lands are situate within 7 miles of the town of Cavan, 5 of Cootehill, and 2 of Stradone. The Dwelling House and Offices have been lately put in repair; there is a large walled-in Garden, well stocked with fruit trees; the pleasure grounds are laid out with shurbs and ever-greens, and a capital trout stream runs through the premises.
The tenant will be required to take out leases and enter into security by recognizance, with two surities for payment of his rent, according to the course of the Court. James HOSEY, of Ravenswood, will show the Premises.
BRUNKER a. BRUNKER
TO BE LET, for Seven Years, pending this cause, or for such other time as may be agreed on, that part of the lands of BOAGH, called BELGREEN, in the County of CAVAN, containing 28 acreas or thereabouts, and late in the possession of James BERRY and Thomas BERRY, and also that part of the Lands of LEA, in the parish of Aughnamulin, and County of Monaghan, containing 9½ acres or thereabouts, late in the possession of Thomas PATTERSON. Belgreen is within two miles of Cootehill, on the road to Shercock; and Lea is within four miles of Cootehill, on the road to Ballybay. Proposals will be received by John TATLOW, Soliciotor, No. 39, College Green, Dublin.
Dated March 2, 1848
March 31 1848
COOTEHILL QUARTER SESSIONS
Commenced on Tuesday, the 8th March instant, at ten o'clock, before P. M. MURPHY, Esq., Assistant Barrister
Civil Bill Entries, 940; Ejectment Entries, 41; Replevin Entries, 2; Appeals to Magistrates, conviction, 1; Voters Registered, 1.
GRAND JURY--Patrick HORAN, Edward COONEY, Samuel MARTIN, Thomas FITZGERALD, Edward BROWN, John SHERA, John CAMPBELL, Philip SMITH, Wm. STENSON, Henry GRAHAM, John BERRY, Thos. HALL, Richard BROWN, Samuel M'FADDIN, John BROWN.
Moore TALBOT, assault--One fortnight's imprisonment, and 4s. to prosecutrix, Margaret TEEMY.
Robert DUFFY, assault--One month's imprisonment.
Michael SMITH, Patt HAND, John MALONE, riot and assault-- Michael SMITH one fortnight's imprisonment, HAND and MALONE one week each.
Patrick BRIENS, receiving stolen bullocks--Ten year's transportation.
Bridget BOYLAN, receiving stolen property--One month's imprisonment.
John TROTTER, receiving stolen property--Two month's imprisonment, hard labour.
Rose MARKEY, larceny--One month's imprisonment.
James RORAGH, larceny--One month hard labour.
James WOODS, burglary and robbery--Three months hard labour.
Philip GALLIGAN, receiving stolen goods--Three months hard labour.
Catherine WARD, larceny--Three months from commital.
Thomas MARTIN and Owen MARTIN, larceny--Each two months' hard labour.
James M'BRIDE, receiving stolen goods--one month's imprisonment.
Catherine FARRELLY, larceny--Twenty-four hours' imprisonment.
Anne SAGE, receiving stolen goods--twelve months' hard labour.
Bridget CLARKE, larceny--One month's hard labour.
Patrick CONNELLY, receiving stolen goods--Six months' hard labour.
Rose KING and Andrew KING, receiving stole goods--Rose two months, and Andrew two months' hard labour each.
James WILSON, burglary and robbery--Ten years' transportation.
Francis SMITH, larceny--Six months' hard labour.
Thomas REILLY, receiving stolen goods--Forty eight hours imprisonment.
Crown business ended at one o'clock on Wednesday, when civil business commenced. Magistrates that attended at Crown business--Dean ADAMS, T. L. CLEMENTS, Esq., John WILCOCKS, Esq., Eyre COOTE, Esq., Rev. F. FITZPATRICK.
CORPORAL PUNISHMENT--On Monday, pursuant to sentence at court- martial, private William REED, of the 48th regiment, received corporal punishment at Enniskillen barrack. He had been sentenced to receive 50 lashes for unsoldier like and insubordinate conduct while on duty, in aid of the civil power (?) Swanlinbar, on the 17th instant, and afterwards on the 19th, when brought a prisoner before his commanding officer, behaving most disgracefully--only 20 lashes were inflicted--Reporter.
On the 26th inst., at Home-street, Dublin, the lady of G. A. ROTHERAM, Esq., of Killbride Castle, Co. Meath, of a daughter.
On the same day, at North Great George's-street, Dublin, the lady of Robert ROSS TODD, Esq., of a son.
On the 28th inst., at Tallaght church, Augustus F. WYNNE, Esq., to Charlotte, Daughter of Sir Robert SHAW, Bart.
On the 25th inst., in Monkstown church, V. G. BROWN, Esq., co Limerick, to Mary Darley, daughter of the Rev. John COGLAN, of Bawdsey, Suffolk
On the 29, instant, at his residence, Tully, county Cavan, in the 71st year of his age, Randal William MACDONNELL STAFFORD, late Major of the Londonderry Regt., sincerely and deservedly regretted by his afflicted family and all who had the pleasure of his acquaintance.
On the 28th inst., at Upper Fitzwilliam-street, Dublin, aged 82 yers, the Lady Juliana BRABAZON, daughter of the eighth, and sister to the present Earl of Meath. On the 23d inst., in Day-place, Tralee, of fever, aged 61 years, Walter HUSSEY, Esq.
Sligo Election--John Patrick SOMERS, Esq., was unseated on Monday last, by a committee of the House of Commons, and the Election declared null and void.
COUNTY OF CAVAN A LIST of APPLICATIONS received by the Clerk of the Peace from Persons seeking Excise Licenses, for Sale of Beer, Spirits, &c., by retail; within said County, pursuant to 3rd and 4th Wm. IV, Chap. 68, and 6th and 7th Wm. IV, Cha. 38; to be heard and enquired into at Ballyconnell, on Monday, the 10th day of April, immediately after the Grand Jury is sworn.
No. Name of Applicant Residence 1. KILROY, M. A. Ballyconnell 2. MAGUIRE, Pat Kilsub 3. M'LOUGHLIN, Francis Derrinlester 4. MAGAURAN, Francis Monengaghal 5. MAGOURTY, Darby Corraquigly 6. WALLACE, William Swanlinbar
GUSTVUS TUITE DALTON, Clerk of the Peace
County Cavan Newspaper Transcription Project
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