December 3, 1844
Armagh, County Armagh
On the 21st inst., at Chantilly Lodge, the lady of Ralph Smith Obre, Esq., of a son and heir.
At Tempo Church, on Tuesday, 20th May, by the Rev. John Whittaker, Mr. John Lemon, merchant, Enniskillen, to Jane, daughter of the late Mr. Robert Armstrong, of Brookeborough.
MARRIAGE IN HIGH LIFE.—Tuesday
last, in Colebrooke church, by the Rev. Butler Brooke, the marriage of
the Rev. P. L’Estrange, Rector and Vicar of Knockbride, in the county
Cavan, to Harriet Elizabeth Brooke, daughter of the late Sir Henry and
sister to the present Sir Arthur B. Brooke, of Colebrooke, M.P., for
the county Fermanagh, took place, in the presence of the several
members of the Brooke family, and the elite of the county. After the
ceremony a sumptuous dejeune was given by Sir Arthur and lady Brooke,
when the happy pair left Colebrooke to pass the honeymoon.
May 21, at Vicar's Hill, in this city, Mrs. George Benson.
On the 15th inst., Miss E. Tuthill, daughter of the Rev. Mr. Tuthill, curate of Ballyshannon.
February 28, at St. Helena, on his passage home from China, aged 21 years, Henry William, third son of Samuel T. Potter, Esq., of Bundoran.
March 19, of cholera, Lieutenant and Adjutant John James Ochiltree Stuart, 5th Regiment M.N.I., third son of the Hon. A. G. Stuart, Lisdhu, county of Tyrone. By his death the service has lost a bright ornament. He lived beloved and respected, and his death is lamented by all who knew him.
On the 16th instant, of consumption, at his residence in Ireland's entry Belfast, Mr. Thomas M'Ilwee, foreman, "Protestant Journal," aged 25 years, much and deservedly regretted.
The potato crop in
every party of the country is most promising.—Tipperary Vindicator.
last Mr. Atkinson, coroner, held an inquest at Ballycastle, on the body
of Mrs. Eliza Harding, wife of Lieutenant George Harding, of the Coast
Guards, stationed at Belarrig. This lady’s death was very sudden, and
many unpleasant reports injurious to the character of her husband were
in circulation, owing to a servant maid who left her service a short
time previous to her death. Many witnesses were examined, all of whom
bore testimony to Lieutenant Harding being a kind and affectionate
husband. Dr. Layng, of Ballycastle, who was in the habit of attending
the deceased for some years, gave evidence as to her habits of living,
and had seen her in fits, which appeared to him to be delirium tremens.
Doctor Neilson made a post mortem examination, after which he gave the
following evidence—That on the left breast there was the mark of a
slight contusion, but it was not of consequence, as producing any
material injury. The lungs were small, but in other respects appeared
healthy. The left extremity of the stomach was very much inflamed, and
the greater portion of the smaller intestines were likewise in an
inflamed state ; the liver was gorged with blood. He was of opinion
that the state of the liver and also the inflamed state of the stomach
and intestines could be satisfactorily accounted for from the
intemperate habits of the deceased ; and although there was no proof of
excess in drinking ardent spirits for some days prior to death, he was
of opinion, that a chronic state of inflammation of the stomach and
intestines had existed for some time ; he was, however, of opinion that
the immediate cause of death was epilepsy. The jury returned as their
verdict that the deceased, Eliza Harding, came by her death by the
visitation of God.—Athlone Constitution.
(From our Enniskillen Correspondent.)
On Friday last the Earl of ERNE, accompanied by the Countess of ERNE, and a fashionable party of ladies and gentlemen, arrived at Enniskillen in the new iron steamer lately put on Lough Erne by the noble Earl. The party left in the evening for Crom, accompanied by several of the elite of the neighbourhood.
RICHARD HAMILTON, Esq., has been appointed Clerk of the Peace for the county Fermanagh. He entered upon the duties of his office on Wednesday last.
EARLY HAY.—Last week a meadow belonging to JOHN COPELAND, Esq., Prospect-Hill, Enniskillen, was cut down, and looks remarkably well to be cut so early in the season.
On Thursday last a large quantity of ammunition arrived in Ennsikillen from Sligo, and was put into the artillery barracks. It was conveyed by a strong party of police, who left for Sligo on Friday morning.
THE MOLLY MAGUIRES.—ENNISKILLEN, MAY 25.—On the morning of Thursday last, a notice from the Molly Maguires was found posted at Rossorry bridge, near Enniskillen, cautioning people not give more than 3d. per stone for potatoes, or 11d. per peck for meal, and if they would they should never live to see Enniskillen.
In my last I noticed to you the murder of Mr. GALLAGHER of Ballyconnell—his wife died on Sunday week, and on Tuesday following his poor mother expired from fear and grief; one of his children is also in a dangerous state.
(From our Blacklion Correspondent.)
On the 22d instant, a party of the Molly Maguires visited the houses of Francis Barton of Quibertragh near Blacklion, and John Nixon, of Duckfields, herdsmen. Both persons being at the fair of Blacklion, the ruffians succeeded in carrying away two muskets. Barton’s wife made a spirited resistance, holding the gun, till she was threatened with death. The muskets belonged to the Largy corps of yeomanry. Much praise is due Constable Gibson and his party who made every possible exertion to apprehend the gang, but did not succeed, although they searched the mountains for miles around. A person named Dolan, who lives near Blacklion, has been arrested on the suspicion of having acted as guide.
A man named M’Kiernan was shot near Ballinamore, on Wednesday the 21st instant.
It is said that a man named Leonard, a tenant of the Earl of Erne’s, living near Knockninny, had his ditches levelled a few nights ago. The cause is supposed to be jealousy towards Leonard, who had recently an addition made to his farm by his landlord, and which he was endeavouring to bring into a state of cultivation.
Thursday evening last Mr. Thomas Bournes, son of Mr. James Bournes, of
Castleconner, county Sligo, and who recently obtained a good property,
left the quay of Ballina in a boat, in company with the master of a
vessel then lying in the river, and they did not proceed far, when
owing to some mismanagement, and the party it is supposed, being
somewhat intoxicated, the boat was upset. All but Bournes escaped. The
body was found immediately after.—An inquest washeld [sic] on the body
on Saturday by Meredith Thompson, Esq., one of the county Sligo
coroners, and a verdict returned in accordance with the evidence.—Mayo
SUICIDE BY THE MAYOR OF
LLANIDLOES.—Mr. Edward Hughes, aged about 60, the Mayor of this
Borough, put a termination to his existence by piercing his neck, under
the left ear, with a penknife.
The successful candidates for Fellowship and Scholarship in the University were declared on Monday. The following is the order in which their names are announced :
Fellowships.—1. Richard Townsend, Esq., B.A. 2. Rev. John William Stubbs, M.A. Mr. Townsend having been elected unanimosly [sic], the contest at the Board lay between Messrs. Stubbs and Ingram—the votes running thus:--For Mr. Stubbs—The Provost, Dr. Singer, Dr. Moore, and Dr. Todd. For Mr. Ingram—Dr. M’Donnell, Dr. Lloyd, Mr. Macullagh, and Mr. Graves. The votes being thus equal, Mr. Stubbs was elected by the casting vote of the Provost. The premiums awarded to the successful candidates for Fellowship were as follow [sic]:--Ingram, First Premium of £100, together with Madden’s Premium of £120. Dickson, £60. Patten, £50. Wilcock, £30. Poole, £30.
Schorlasrships [sic].—Messrs. Parke, Charles; Doyne, Richard ; Reilly, Francis; Wynne, Henry; Leslie, Thomas; Hearne, William; Barnes, Thomas; Walker, Francis ; Webb, Thomas; Vowell, William; Murphy, Nugent ; Mongan.
TRINITY TERM EXAMINATION.
At the close of the examination for the degree of Bachelor of Arts, the candidates were classed as follows :--
FIRST CLASS—SENIOR MODERATORS.—(Mich. exam.)
SECOND CLASS—JUNIOR MODERATORS.—(Mich. exam.)
THIRD CLASS—Richard H. Smith, Mr. Thomas M’Mahon, John A. Dolan, Sch.; Thomas Moeran, Pascal Atkinson, Mr. William Hoyte, John Whiting, Richard Fisher, Richard Frizelle, Sclr.
FOURTH CLASS—James Roger, Sch. ; David Barry, Mr. N. Ball, Mr. Henry P. Vereker, Mr. Robert W. Russell, Charles Haines, George S. Greer, John G. Mulholland, Mr. Frederick F. Knox, Mr. Henry J. Tomb, William J. Murdock, James W. Armstrong, Mr. Joseph Greene, Mr. Robert Close, Sheffington Armstrong.
Unclassed Candidates who have been allowed the examination :--
Gilbert Barrett, John W. Browne, Robert J. Clarke, Mr. Edmund E. Davenport, Mr. Daniel De la Cherois, Mr. Nicholas Cherois, John Devereux, John Dill, Mr. Samuel A. Finnemore, Clermont Fortescue, Mr. Richard H. Hornbridge, Mr. Godfrey Massey, Mr. John M. Massey, Mr. Robert M’Naghten, Mr. Walter Pigott, Mr. Robert Roe, Thomas Russell, Mr. Russell Stanhope, Mr. Henry Warren.
EXAMINATION FOR HONORS.
JUNIOR SOPHISTERS—SCIENCE—First Rank.—Mr. Robert Fowler, James B. Gilmore, Edward L. Barrington, James W. Barlow, Richard H. Walsh.
CLASSICS.—First Rank.—Wm. Kidd, Thomas W. Barnes.
Second Rank.—William W. Brady, George S. Fagan, Francis Young.
SENIOR FRESHMEN—SCIENCE.—First Rank.— Johnston G. Stoney, Morgan W. Crofton, Benjamin Williamson.
Second Rank.—Thomas W. Luby, James Stevenson, Horace Townsend, John J. Walkr, William B. Cobbe.
CLASSICS.—First Rank.—Mr. Richard A. O’Reilly, Mr. Christopher L. Darby, Henry Brougham, George Higginbotham, William Lewers, Steward B. Craig, John J. Twigg, Wm. Weir, John R. M’Dowell.
Second Rank.—Mr. Edward Topping, Mr. John C. Pounden, Thomas W. Luby, Henry Taylour, James Stevenson, Henry W. Crofton, Daniel Baird, John J. Walker, Laurence Kellett, William Halpin, William Pennefather, Barre B. Bowling, Joseph E. Miller, Robert M. Bradshaw, Henry W. Mathew, Hugh M’Sorley, Wyndham F. Armstrong.
JUNIOR FRESHMEN.—SCIENCE—First Rank.— John Casement, James Johnson, William Fetherston, Frederick R. Wynne, John England, Zacharias Barry, Thomas Dunnett.
Second Rank.—Mr. Marshall Clarke, Mr. Samuel Dopping, Thomas Ashe, James A. Dickinson, Robert Cooke, Wentworth Erck, Henry Galbraith, Travers Adamson, James A. Weir, Robert Carmichael.
CLASSICS—First Rank.—William Anderson, William Malan, Benjamin Fausset, Edward C. Carrol, Travers Adamson, J. A. Weir, Henry V. Mackesy, Hugh Huddleston, Thomas Dunnett.
Second Rank.—Francis Hopkins, William Hopkins, James Hewitt, George A. Crawford, Arthur Guinness, Trevor Wheeler, Ambrose Cooke, Maurice C. Odell, William Brassington, Lewis Richards, Abraham Dawson, Charles Stringer, John Dunbar, Alexander Waring, John Murray.
COURT OF CHANCERY.
The Lord Chancellor, the Master of the Rolls, and Mr. Henn, Master in Chancery, entered the court and took their seats upon the bench at half-past one o’clock. The following gentlemen were then called to the bar, having taken the usual oaths in the Court of the Queen’s Bench :--
(Those marked with an asterisk are Roman Catholics.]
Henry O’Malley, Esq., second of Sir Samuel O’Malley, of Kilboyne, in the county of Mayo, Bart. ; William F. Holland, Esq., eldest son of Frederick Holland, late of Ballyvoreen, county Limerick, deceased ; *John Levy, Esq., eldest son of Patrick Levy, late of Glanagh, county Longford, Esq., deceased; Robert Haliday, Esq., third son of Robert Haliday, late of Belfast, Esq., deceased; George William Grogan, Esq., fourth son of John Grogan, of Harcourt-street, Dublin, Barrister-at-law; William Patrick Carr, Esq., second son of the Rev. George Carr, of New Ross, county Wexford, clerk ; Benjamin Forbes Mosse, Esq., eldest son of Thomas Mosse, of Knockfinne, Queen’s county, Esq.; *John O’Hagan, Esq., second son of John A. O’Hagan, Esq., late of Newry, county Down, woollen-draper, deceased ; George Augustus Frederick Robinson, Esq., only son of the Rev. Hugh Robinson, late of New Norfolk, in the Island of Van Dieman’s Land, government chaplain, deceased; John Pitt Kennedy, Esq., only son of Thomas Kennedy, late of the city of Londonderry, deceased; Edward Blackburne, Esq., third son of the Right Hon. Francis Blackburne, of Merrion-square, Master of the Rolls; *William Hackett, Esq., third son of Wm. Hackett of Halifax, in the province of Nova Scotia, North America, Esq.; John Frazer, Esq., fifth son of John Frazer, of Dromore, county Down, Esq. deceased.
M'KEE was committed to our county gaol on the 25th inst., by JOSHUA M.
MAGEE, Esq., coroner, for having, ont he 19th inst., at Kermon,
wilfully murdered her illegitimate child by exposing it to the cold and
inclemency of the weather. She is for trial at the ensuing assizes.
Captain JOHN RODGERS,
26th regt. leaves Eden Cottage, Loughgall, the seat of his father, this
day, to join his regiment in Belfast.
T. GOODISON & Co.,
2, DAWSON-STREET, NEXT MORRISON’S HOTEL,
HOUSE-FURNISHERS & LINEN DRAPERS,
Importers of Damasks, Moreens, London Chintzes,
AND MAUFACTURERS [sic] OF
SILK TABRRETS, FRINGES, TASSELS, BELLPULLS,
AND EVERY DESCRIPTION OF
RESPECTFULLY inform the Nobility and Gentry, that their Warerooms are replete with a beautiful, varied and extensive stock inAGENTS FOR THE
Foreign Tapestries, Challis and Chintzes ; Swiss Muslin Curtains, Plain and Embossed ; Rich Embossed Velvet and Chintz Table Covers ; Utrecht Velvets, Chinese Tapestries, &c., &c.
Patent Gold Tarare Muslin Curtains; Cocoa Matting, Foot Mats, &c.
Patterns sent to all parts of the kingdoms.
PLAN FOR IMPROVING THE AGRICULTURE OF
The plan I have to propose is based upon the following self-evident truisms—namely, that if the occupiers of the soil in Ireland are ignorant of the true principles and practice of agriculture, the natural remedy for such ignorance is to give them instruction: and if they are to be instructed, it becomes equally evident there must be some one to instruct them. This reasoning seems so clear and conclusive, that it may appear necessary to allude to some of the causes which tend to prevent the appointment of such instructors, in order to account for their not being, before this, located upon every considerable estate; for although a great many landlords have appointed such instructors, under the name of agriculturists, for the instruction of their tenants, yet by far the greater number, though at present roused to pay some attention to the improvement of their estates, have not yet been induced to avail themselves of the services of this description of persons on their properties. The cause of the backwardness of landlords in this respect appears to me to be the following:--From the failure of the many attempts that have been heretofore made to improve the condition of the small farmers of Ireland, a very general impression prevails, that every endeavour to accomplish it is but so much labour lost ; which belief, chiming in with the natural indolence and want of business-like habits of the great majority of landlords, indisposes them generally (notwithstanding many splendid examples to the contrary) to embark in any undertaking where a certain expense must inevitably be incurred, and where success, in their opinion, is so very problematical.
Besides this expense, however, there is another great discouragement in the trouble of supplying seeds, bone-dust, guano, &c., to the poorer tenants, without which (and perhaps even a loan of cash) it would, in general, be wholly impossible for them to follow the instructions given to them; and besides the great trouble in the delivery and keeping the account of these loans, there is also the apprehension that it may be difficult, if not impossible, to recover payment of such advances. There are discouragements to the general appointment of agriculturists, which will, on consideration, full account for the number of those who, though they cannot deny the force of the reasoning in favour of the appointment, have, nevertheless, to the present time, delayed or absolutely declined to adopt a plan so clearly supported by argument.
Taking these facts and circumstances into consideration, it occurred to me, when consulted by the Earl of Clancarty, to recommend to his lordship the appointment of an agriculturist to the union agricultural society he was about to establish at Ballinasloe, whose duty it would be to revisit the estates of such gentlemen, belonging to the society, as chose to avail themselves of his services, for any specified time they might think proper, paying him his wages for the time required, by which means the subscription funds of the society would be left available for other necessary objects.
This plan, it will be obvious upon the slightest consideration, went far to meet the discouragements just mentioned, which appeared to deter individual landlords from engaging an agriculturist specially for his own property; for in the first place, it greatly lessened the expense and trouble by bringing within his reach a well-qualified man, whom, for an outlay of four or five guineas, he might procure to go round every tenant on his estate ; and one general committee would in all probability, be able to free him from the labour of loans, &c. ; or upon the plan of the Rev. W. Eames, of Clonfadforan Glebe, he might, perhaps, be able to get that duty performed by the loan fund of the district, and all risk of not being paid for is advances thereby removed. Thus the appointment of agriculturists to union agricultural societies seems calculated (by setting aside the objections which landlords have heretofore been deterred by) to facilitate the introduction of the agriculturist upon estates where he would otherwise never have gained admittance; and if the plan became adopted in every union, it would bring the best agricultural information within reach of the most remote inhabitant in the kingdom.
It would further provide a confidential agent in each union, capable of affording the most valuable statistical information; would facilitate the establishing of lending libraries ; depots of breeding stock ; museums of agricultural implements ; and any other such measures as might hereafter be determined on, when sufficient funds were obtained.
But it is not by arguments alone the value of the plan for appointing agriculturists to agricultural union societies is to be estimated ; the case referred to of Ballinasloe, affords such facts as place the matter beyond contradiction, and will I think, fully justify me in laying before you the statements made by Mr. Clapperton, the agriculturist there, at the last meeting of the society, in the third year from its formation ; upon which occasion Mr. Clapperton being called upon, spoke, as follows, addressing the Earl of Clancarty.
“My lord, I am happy to say I receive the most ample and efficient support from both landlords and agents, in trying to accomplish the philanthropic designs of this institution ; which, when coupled with the efforts and energies of the small farmers, furnishes efficient machinery to work the society onward in the general march of improvement, with a steady and progressive motion. The landed proprietary in this union, beyond a doubt, have done much in opening up facilities for improvements, which were otherwise impracticable; but the small farmers have done a good deal more in carrying into practical effect the improvements for which these facilities opened the door; and of whom I can safely affirm, in the hearing of this noble assembly, and in the face of the world, that in very many instances their zeal and energy surpass their ability. It has, I presume, been an hundred times asserted and re-asserted, that the small farmers of Ireland are so tenaciously wedded to systems derived from their forefathers, that it is with difficulty they can be persuaded to abandon them ; but as far as my experience goes in the matter, I have invariably found that all which is requisite to obtain their ready assent to carry into practical effect (as far as their circumstances will admit of) the improved system of agriculture, is to meet them on equable and friendly terms ; for any thing in the shape of pride or superciliousness on the part of an agriculturist, my lords and gentlemen, I am persuaded would neutralize the very best advice ; but only meet them on fair ground, and I presume there is not a race of men in this extended universe will evince a more kindly and tractable disposition than the small farmers in Ireland. This year, as far as I am concerned, they have manifested the deepest interest in green-cropping generally, but particularly in the sowing of turnips, for which operation the weather has seldom been less propitious, and indeed was in every way calculated to blunt their energies, and even obviate their very best intentions ; but to their credit be it spoken, their anxiety was so intense to realize that invaluable crop (turnips), that a failure was no sooner indicated and rendered apparent, that than the seed was re-sown, and in many instances, several times repeated. But this feature, my lords and gentlemen, was by no means attributable to the seed, but the fault of the season. But, to proceed,--we have this year 702 turnip growers, 32 of mangel-wurzel, 275 of rape, 454 of vetches, and 296 of clover and grass ; exhibiting an increase over last year of 227 turnip growers, 17 of mangel-wurzel, 131 of rape, 159 of vetches, and 109 of clover and grass. And the extra breadth of ground under these crops is fully in proportion with the extra number of persons who have sown them. We have an increase of 34 acres of turnips, 3 acres of mangel, 156 acres of rape, 11 acres of vetches, and 146 acres of clover and grass; giving a total increase of green crops over last year of 351 Irish acres; and the total breadth of ground under the different green crops this year is the following, viz: under turnips, 146 acres; under mangel, 5 acres ; under rape, 306 acres; under vetches, 58 acres; under clover and grass, 363 acres; giving a total breadth of ground under green crops of 880 acres, adequate to support throughout the year about 2,000 head of black cattle. In furrow draining, there are executed since November last, 17,484 Irish perches, calculated to put a drain in every perch over an extent of 109 acres. Seeing we have such an ample quantity of green crops and other improvements effected, my lords and gentlemen, it may be a natural inquiry, what fruits have they or are they likely to produce. The benefits derivable from furrow draining, recently executed, are not as yet developed in the scale of remuneration ; but the earth will, in due time, make an ample return from her prolific bosom for every farthing invested, to carry off the surplus water, by which her productive powers were chained down with the iron fetters of sterility; but the benefits already derived are in many instances strikingly exemplified. Much ground (to say the least of it) that was lying comparatively waste, useless to the farmer, and a burden upon the rest of the farm, is now brought under profitable cultivation, and paying for itself; and I consider that every acre of such ground, which is brought from a state of sterility to a state of fertility and productiveness upon an eight-acre farm (and more or less in proportion), reduces the rent upon the entire farm fully two shillings per acre, taking the average rent at £1 per acre. The good effected in this respect is both felt and seen, although as yet upon a moderate scale; and there are many farmers present can bear ample attestation to the truth of other statements I am about to make, viz., that many who did not possess a cow for several preceding years, have now realized one; others, who had only one, have now tow, with a proportional increase of minor stock ; and many of them can send potatoes to market now, who could not previously raise an adequate supply for their own families. And I can tell you more, my lords and gentlemen, I know a good many instances (and many here know it as well as I do), where the farmers would have been put out of their farms before this, had it not been for the improved system of husbandry which they adopted. Green-cropping and house-feeding have also stamped their character very preceptibly upon both the quantity and quality of the dung-hill, the virtues of which are also being exemplified in the increase of manured ground, and the quantity and quality of the produce. In fine, green-cropping and house- feeding are the most rich and fertile sources of acquiring an adequate supply of manure to answer all the demands of the farm; and in the absence of that, the best farmer is inadequate to farm upon a remunerating scale.”
Now, taking 1730, the number of persons stated by Mr. Clapperton to have become converts to the new system, to be able, after being fairly embarked in that system, to manure merely two acres more than they formerly did, this would make an extra quantity of manured land equal to 3,460 acres, which would be qualified, according to the four-course rotation, to give, after the manured crop, a crop of wheat or oats, laid down with clover and grass for next year’s soiling, and another
grain crop after the clover, which four crops would, upon an average, be worth above £7 10s per acre, Irish mearure [sic], or £30 for the four crops; which multiplied by the 3,460, comes to above £1,00,000 (at a valuation nearly one-third under the fair estimate), brought into a small district by the exertions of one man, in a little more than two and a half years, at an expense not much exceeding £160, which his wages would about amount to for that time. But this is far from being a true estimate of the benefit likely to be derived; for the number of converts will be increasing from year to year, and the produce of the land will be augmented by the new converts likely to follow the successful examples given them by so many of their neighbours, until the mind is actually lost in astonishment in the contemplation of results of such magnitude, arising out of an outlay apparently so inadequate; and a contribution of £50 annually towards the wages of an agriculturist, in each union, would most probably be the means of inducing the resident gentry in each district to unite to provide means of making the appointment practically useful, by providing an advance of manure, seeds, &c., and in some cases, money, in order to enable the poorer classes to avail themselves of the instructions afforded them. If it is calculated what the return to government, in the revenue, from the additional outlay of £100,000, in any one district, expended in whatever way it may, the contribution of £50 in each will appear to be a profitable investment for the public, instead of an expense, and this is the true way of viewing the matter in. It may be further said, in favour of this, that the education thus afforded to the farmer and his family, upon their own farms, is precisely the education suited to their situation. They learn to be useful members of society in the condition in which Providence has placed them; and, by honest industry and the practice of what they are taught, the means of advancement in the world are placed within their reach. It is a common error to suppose that this mode of proceeding tends to pauperize an estate, by sanctioning and encouraging small farms, and that the true way to have a rich tenantry is, to divide the land into large farms, and turn off the small holders ; no doubt this process, however repugnant to the better feelings of human nature, would be effective, if new tenants could be got to occupy these large farms with capital suited to their cultivation. There may, perhaps, be some parts of Ire- land where such capital is to be met with; but in general, such tenants could not be had, were this plan extensively acted on. In such cases, with all deference to the judgment of those who adopt the clearance system, they are, under such circumstances, taking the direct way to impoverish their estates, in place of enriching them. To give a man a larger farm than he has the capital to cultivate, very nearly resembles the practice of Indian princes, who make a present of an elephant to the courtier they wish to ruin—the expense beggars him: so it is with the large farm the rent must be paid, which is just as eating an evil as the elephant ; and the tenant who has not the capital to support it, is broke. It will be found, I think, when the subject is well considered, that it is not large farms make a wealthy tenantry, but it is a wealthy tenantry that make the large farms. Therefore, those landlords who wish for large farms, which, in this view of the case, every landlord will natu- rally do, his first exertions must be to improve the circumstances of the farmers he had ; and, as they can only better their circumstances by improved cultivation, his first object should be to give them agricultural instruction. Knowledge is power; and the power of making three acres of land produce as much as nine, with one-third of the rent, and much less expense in other respects, must be degrees effect an improvement in a certain proportion of any tenantry. Suppose this knowledge is pretty generally diffused over any particular district, the value of land (to those who have improved) is enhanced, by their knowing, from experience, what an increased return can be had from it. If any tenant who adheres to old prejudices gets into difficulties, or wishes to emigrate, the man who has improved is the person who will give the highest price for his farm, from knowing what he can make of it; and, by what he had made, is, also, the person best able to pay for it. Thus, the improver extends his farm from time to time, as opportunity offers. On the other hand, suppose that no such opportunity occurs—that no one wishes to emigrate, or may be forced to sell from being in difficulties, then the improver, having acquired a little capital, and knowing he can part with his own farm to advantage, from its high state of cultivation, looks round to other localities where agriculture is less understood, and where land, therefore, may be obtained on cheaper terms ; he sells his own farm, and purchases, elsewhere, one twice or three times the size, which his skill and exertions will soon double the value of; and his old farm goes to increase the farm of some of his neighbours whom he leaves behind him ; and thus, in any case, the acquisition of capital leads to the increase of the holdings as I have stated.
There can be no truth more certain than this, that, as a general principle, capital will find room for itself, and go where it will yield the best return. The colonization schemes of the present day, in New Zealand and elsewhere, are all examples that capital will find room for itself, and are no more than instances, upon a large scale, of the principle contended for, and which is demonstrated in a small way by what has been said of the small farmer, whose improved knowledge is in itself an acquired capital, which he will not fail to turn to advantage in some way or other. The truth of what has been thus advanced could be substantiated by numerous examples on the Earl of Gosford’s estates. The premium men who have most distinguished themselves have invariably increased their farms where they had the opportunity of so doing. Many more are waiting that opportunity ; and many have sold their farms under Lord Gosford, and have purchased larger farms at lower rents elsewhere ; and some have obtained valuable farms, without purchase, from landlords who have been anxious to establish examples of improved cultivation on their estates. Thus, the spreading of the populatation [sic], however different the causes which may bring it about, in every case tends to enlarge the farms of those who remain stationary, whilst bettering greatly the condition of those who remove.
But the state of things near large towns, where capital abounds, affords still more convincing proof of what I assert, because it is there visible to the eye. No one can there see the miserable cottier starving upon two or three acres of land, clinging to it with desperate tenacity, as his only hope of existence. If such small portions exist, they are in the hands of the market gardener, whose knowledge enables him to buy out the cottier, who may have escaped the acquisitiveness of the adjoining farmer. The cottier becomes the labourer, and the capital of the vicinity affords him constant employment ; that division of labour which capital is sure to produce has been brought into existence, and improvement, proceeding in conformity to natural laws, progresses, with benefit to all and injury to none. but to make large farms where there is not capital to occupy them, and to turn out cottiers where there is not capital to employ them, is acting in opposition to natural laws—is forcing a state of things which the advancement of the country is not adequate to maintain, and which must be attended with loss to the proprietors if they cannot get tenants with adequate means ; and with misery to the poor people, who, in losing their patch of land, are obliged to part with all they can rely on for employment, without having any prospect of such a permanent demand for their labour as may render them independent of that resource they have lost.
In every point of view, therefore, the location of an agriculturist seems best suited to the present circumstances of Ireland. The information he gives, as has been already alluded to, suits the peasant for his place in society and makes him a valuable member of the community, without elevating him so much above his former circumstances as to make him unsuited to them, which is the case with many of those trained in agricultural schools, where they acquire different branches of learning, which, however advantageous to the individual, disqualify him for returning to his father’s cabin and few acres of land, to make the most of his acquirements. The local is unsuited to him. He leaves it in disgust to seek a situation better suited to him, and his father and his farm are left as they are. To take a large farm he has not capital ; to sink into a small one he cannot brook ; and if he cannot get a situation as land-steward or agriculturist, which his want of experience and knowledge of the world are great obstacles to his obtaining, his Irish history ends by his becoming an emigrant to America, leaving his native land, without benefit from him or his education, to advance or retrogade as other circumstances may happen to promote or retard it.
Emigration is, no doubt, the natural vent for our population ; but no country can be reasonably said to be over-peopled until the soil has been brought to something near its maximum state of cultivation, and found insufficient for the support of its inhabitants.
There is no truth more clear than that capital is the result of labour ; for man brought nothing in the world, and, therefore, there was nothing but his labour to produce it. To part, therefore, with the labourer is, to part with that which produces the wealth of the country ; and if the country affords the means of employment, it seems to me the government, as acting for the good of the community, ought first to endeavour to make that employment available; and ought not, until all means of accomplishing this have failed, to encourage the emigration of a population able and willing to work, for the cultivation and improvement of foreign lands, which is so much wanted for the cultivation and improvement of our own. If the population is kept profitably employed, capital will so increase, that it will have to find room for itself elsewhere ; and those who are possessed of it will find means to export themselves, without any other inducement than their own interest ; and there will be always enough of growing population and capital coming forward to take its place ; so the wealth and property of the country will always remain full, even to overflowing.
The present state of Ireland does not, I regret to say, furnish an example of this desirable state of things; but it, nevertheless, exhibits very striking proofs of the correctness of the doctrines here insisted on ; for of what class are the great body of emigrants usually composed? Are they not those possessed of a certain amount of capital, which, they hope to lay out to more permanent advantage elsewhere than they can at home ; or those better educated, who wish to take their talents and acquirements to a better market ; or the able-bodied labourer, whose capital is his health and strength, who seeks elsewhere the occupation and employment which he cannot here obtain? It is a common complaint, that those only leave the country whom it would be most desirable to keep in it; and this fact is often accounted for according to the opposite views of religious and party feelings. But the whole seems to take place in strict conformity with the admitted law of nature ; that capital will always find room for itself ; and all those people obey this law in taking their capital voluntarily, whether it be monetary, mental, or corporeal, to the best market. But to force emigration prematurely, by bounties and other inducements, seems to me to be little better than the clearance system, sanctioned in the gross, though it is denounced in detail; and will probably cost more than would provide employment at home in a manner more beneficial to the country, and more satisfactory to the persons for whose benefit it is proposed.
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